What do we know about a condition of substance?Conversation on a condition of substance.
Philosophers of antiquity, starting with Empedocles, claimed that the world consists of four elements: lands, waters, air and fire. This situation taking into account some assumptions keeps within modern scientific idea of four aggregate states of substance, and plasma, obviously, there corresponds fire. Properties of plasma are studied by physics of plasma. Here we will also talk about it. Besides, apparently, what here as a matter of fact to tell
. Everything is discussed, retold and described long ago, and approximately looks so:
- If to heat something firm - we will receive that chemically same but liquid if we continue to heat liquid - that we will receive from same mix of any gases,
And there can sometimes be any deposit, continuing to heat which we will receive that it will burn down and gas at further heating can burn down too, when burning at us fire will turn out, i.e. compliance of plasma.
definition of plasma sounds: Pl`s
́ a zma (from Greek π λ ά σ μ α “molded“, “issued“) - partially or completely ionized gas formed of neutral atoms (or molecules) and charged particles (ions and electrons). there is no
Apparently on the above, in definitions of concept about plasma, words about fire. But fire exists, plasma existence is proved too and We equalize fire and plasma since firm, liquid or gaseous neither that, nor another is.
Fire does not interest Us, and the fact that We know about plasma is shown in the following table.
the Most typical forms of
plasma Artificially created
plasma • Substance in luminescent including compact and neon lamps. Plasma rocket
engines • A gas-discharge crown of the ozone
generator • Researches of the operated thermonuclear synthesis.
the Electric arch in an arc lamp and in arc welding
the Plasma lamp.
the Arc category from the Tesla transformer.
Impact on substance the laser radiation
the Shining sphere of nuclear explosion. Terrestrial natural
plasma • A lightning
• Fires of the Saint Elma
• An ionosphere
• The polar lights
• Tongues of flame (low-temperature plasma) Space and astrophysical
plasma • The sun and other stars (those which exist due to thermonuclear reactions)
• The solar
wind • A space (space between planets, stars and galaxies) to
• The interstellar fogs
Tablitsa it is taken from “Wikipedia“ there practically there is everything, the only thing that I would add to the column “Terrestrial Natural Plasma“, so is so-called. “Fireball“ - the shining plasma sphere. Because IT as a matter of fact also is, the purpose and a subject of our conversation. So We know
about “Fireball“? - Yes practically anything!
It can suddenly appear and disappear also suddenly.
On attestations of eyewitnesses, a fireball usually appears in storm, storm weather; often, but it is not obligatory, along with usual lightnings. But there is a set of evidence of its supervision in a sunny weather. Most often she as if “leaves“ the conductor or is generated by usual lightnings, sometimes goes down from clouds, in rare instances - unexpectedly appears in air or as eyewitnesses report, can leave any subject (a tree, a column).
• Exists a set of theories about the nature of “Fireball“ which can be divided into two classes on the basis of the place of the power source supporting existence of a fireball: the assuming external sources, and the theories considering that the source is in a fireball.
The review of the existing theories 
• 1. Kapitsa`s hypothesis: between clouds and the earth there is a standing electromagnetic wave and when it reaches critical amplitude, in any place (most often, is closer to the earth) there is an air breakdown, the gas category is formed. In this case the fireball “is as if strung“ to power lines of a standing wave and will move along the carrying-out surfaces. The standing wave then is responsible for power feed of a fireball.
• 2. Essentially other hypothesis of Smirnov B. M. dealing with a problem of a fireball is a lot of years. In its theory the kernel of a fireball is the bound cellular structure, something like aero gel which provides a strong framework with a small weight. Only threads of a framework are threads of plasma, but not a solid body. And the power stock of a fireball entirely disappears in huge superficial energy of such microporous structure. Thermodynamic calculations on the basis of this model, in principle, do not contradict observed data.
• 3. The following theory assumes that the fireball is the heavy positive and negative ions of air formed at blow of a usual lightning which recombination is disturbed by their hydrolysis. Under the influence of electric forces they gather in a sphere and can coexist long enough until their water “fur coat“ collapses. It explains also that fact as various color of a fireball and its direct dependence on time of existence of the fireball - speeds of destruction of water “fur coats“ and the beginning of process of an avalanche recombination. • 4. One more theory explains to
all set of the observed phenomena with the thermochemical effects occurring in saturated water vapor in the presence of strong electric field. The power of a fireball decides by warmth of chemical reactions on participation of molecules of water and their ions here. The author of the theory is sure that she gives a definite answer on a fireball riddle.
of D. J. Turner, Physics Reports 293 (1998) 1
• 5. Other theory assumes that the fireball is a ridbergovsky substance. L. Holmlid group. is engaged in preparation of ridbergovsky substance in vitro so far not for the purpose of production of fireballs at all, and generally for the purpose of receiving powerful electronic and ionic streams, using that work of an exit of ridbergovsky substance is very small, several tenth electronvolt. The assumption that the fireball is ridbergovsky substance, describes much more it observed properties, from ability to arise under different conditions, to consist of different atoms, and to ability to pass through walls and to restore spherical shape. Try to explain with condensate of ridbergovsky substance also the plazmoida received in liquid nitrogen.
• 6. Unexpected approach to an explanation of the nature of a fireball is offered within the last six years by Torchigin V. P. according to which the fireball is an incoherent optical spatial soliton which curvature is other than zero. In translation into more available language the fireball represents a thin layer of strongly compressed air in which in the various directions usual intensive this world circulates. This light at the expense of the electrostrictive pressure created by it provides air compression. In turn, compressed air acts as the light guide which interferes with light radiation in free space. It is possible to tell that the fireball is the self-limited intensive light or a light bubble which arose from a usual linear lightning. As well as the usual light beam, a light bubble in the terrestrial atmosphere is displaced in the direction of index of refraction of air in which it is.
• 7. As for attempts of laboratory reproduction of fireballs, Nauyer in 1953 and 1956 reported about receiving the shining objects which observation properties completely coincide with properties of light bubbles. Properties of light bubbles can be received theoretically on the basis of the standard physical laws. The objects observed by Nauyer are not subject to action of electric and magnetic fields, radiate light from the surface, they can bypass obstacles and keep integrity after penetration through small openings. Nauyer assumed that the nature of these objects is not connected with electricity in any way. Rather small time of life of such objects (several seconds) is explained by the small reserved energy from - for weak capacities of the used electric discharge. At increase in the reserved energy extent of compression of air in a cover of a light bubble increases that leads to improvement of ability of the light guide to limit light circulating in it and to the corresponding increase in time of life of a light bubble. Nauyer`s works represent a unique case when experimental confirmation of the theory appeared for 50 years before the theory.
• 8. In work: M. Dvornikov and S. Dvornikov, Electron gas oscillations in plasma. Theory and applications, in `Advances in Plasma Physics Research, Vol. 5`, ed. by Francois Gerard (Nova Science Publishers, NY, 2007) pp. 197-212 the fireball model based on quantum ostsillyation of electronic gas in plasma is developed. Solutions of the Schrodinger equation which describe steady, spherically symmetric ostsillyation of electrons were received. Thus, within the offered description of this natural phenomenon spherical shape of a lightning turns out automatically. One of characteristics of this model is the fact that in the central region where the most intensive ostsillyation of electrons are observed, increase of static density of ionic gas is foretold. By authors of this work it is suggested that the offered mechanism is capable to initiate microdose thermonuclear reaction which can be an internal power source to a fireball. Let`s notice that along with increase of density temperature increase of substance in the central region of a lightning is predicted. These can explain emergence of microscopic openings with the melted-off edges when passing a fireball through glass. Also in this research an attempt to explain and some other observed properties of this mysterious natural phenomenon is made.
• 9. The Austrian scientists from University of Innsbruck Josef Peer and Alexander Kendl in the work published in the scientific magazine “Physics Letters A“ described impact of the magnetic fields arising at a lightning discharge on a brain of the person. According to them, in the visual centers of a cerebral cortex there is so-called phosphene - visions which appear at the person at impact on a brain or an optic nerve of strong electromagnetic fields. Scientists compare such influence to the transkranialny magnetic stimulation (TMS) when magnetic impulses go to a cerebral cortex, provoking emergence of phosphene. TMS is often applied as diagnostic procedure in out-patient conditions. Thus, consider physics when it seems to the person that before him the fireball, actually is phosphene. “When someone is in radius of several hundred meters from a lightning stroke, in eyes for several seconds there can be a white spot, - Kendl explains. - It occurs under impact on a cerebral cortex of an electromagnetic impulse“. However, this theory does not explain how fireballs manage to be photographed on video.
• 10. Russian mathematician M. I. Zelikin offered the fireball phenomenon explanation based on (yet not confirmed) to a hypothesis of superconductivity of plasma.
Naturally among all variety of theories, We are interested only that which keeps within the picture “Creations Mira“ created by us. As someone can already understood, it is the theory No. 4 in the above-stated list, i.e. the theory about the nature of Power of “fireball“, and about participation in this process of molecules of water and their ions.
Simply in my opinion besides to “modest“ opinion the FIREBALL is also the DIVINE (plasma) condition of Water with which once All also began.
And the difference fact from a range of a usual lightning at which generally there are lines of the ionized nitrogen at which the range of a fireball is filled with lines of iron, silicon and calcium which are the main making substances of the soil (Earth) recorded on July 23, 2012 on the Tibetan plateau when the Fireball came into the view of two besshchelevy spectrometers by means of which the Chinese scientists studied ranges of usual lightnings when as a result were recorded 1,64 seconds of a luminescence of a fireball and its detailed ranges, just logically rises on the place in our understanding of MIROSOZDANIYa.
Our Earth is “Fire Kingdom“ and when Water appears in the Divine appearance here, it is natural at contact, there is a fight of two elements of Fire and Water while Water constrains Fire pressure on a joint of elements there is a formation of elements of Earth (iron, silicon, calcium) as soon as Fire wins, Water turns into Air (steam) and completely disappears.
Four above paragraphs smoothly follow from my previous monologue “Conversation on elements“. If someone did not read that it was clear about what the speech, I give it below.
Conversation on elements.
Let`s talk about elements. As you understood for a long time, our conversation will be reduced to my monologue. Interestingly - read, it is interesting - argue, but among themselves, I not your council ask
, I state the thoughts, not thoughts, but my “modest“ opinion based on conclusions from the above thoughts are more right even.
As We know, there are 4 elements - Earth, Air, Fire and Water. The truth on the Hindu and Ancient Chinese to philosophies there are 5 elements, in the first case to Earth (Muladkhara - a chakra), to Air (Anakhata - a chakra), to Fire (Manipur - a chakr) and to Water (Svadistan - a chakr) the fifth component - so-called Vishuddkhi - the chakra representing air in the second is added to three of elements - to Fire, to Water and Earth two more are added - elements of the Tree and Metal and for some reason there are no elements of Air. But We brought up on the basis of philosophy of a classical antiquity, and in a consequence of the Middle Ages, accept the classical party of a question. So having available four elements, we will try to place priorities.
According to Aristotle, each element (elements) represents one of conditions of a uniform pervomateriya - a certain combination of the main qualities - heat, cold, humidity and dryness:
• Warmly + dryness =
Fire • Warmly + humidity =
Air • Cold + humidity =
Water • Cold + dryness = Earth
According to modern science, these four elements (elements) can be compared approximately four aggregate states of substance respectively: firm, liquid, gaseous and plasma. Concepts a lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and a magnetosphere, it is also possible to put in compliance to Aristotelean spheres of four elements (elements).
All above is well-known, and to us is uninviting, and in principle it is presented for acquaintance here, type in what there will be a difference on the relation Me to these elements. I Will repeat
, differences especially any, I just place priorities, according to the “modest“ opinion.
I so: the obvious antagonism is present only at two elements which just and apply primacy - Fire and Water. From the result of their counteraction there are two more - Water having put out Fire, leaves wet ashes, in fact Earth, and Fire on the place of the blazing fire, having dried up Water, evaporates it, in fact
Air of Elements of Air and Earth as We see on stated in the previous paragraph, are secondary, their actions are usually neutral, but can influence strengthening, or easing any of warring parties, we will allow wind can extinguish small, cheerfully postrelivayushchy, a kosterok before, and can inflate the huge fire, from one sparkle, jumped aside from this gone out a fire earlier, or during a thunder-storm, the indistinct earth having connected to a rough stream can turn it in a mud stream - a mudflow, thereby having repeatedly strengthened destroying effect, and can having collapsed, it is simple to block to it (stream) the road. Therefore we will return to Fire and Water what elements from them are primary, would seem what difference, but We establish the Universe essence, i.e. truth therefore aboutthe cheryodnost is very important. But on sequence, i.e. primacy at Us as usual everything is simple
- Fire when does not generate Water, without looking even at possible presence of Water vapors at it. And Water, having gathered in huge black clouds, at their collision during a thunder-storm, causes a lightning - heavenly fire which having got, let us assume, to a tree, can instantly incinerate it, or just break, without having left not what traces of temperature influence.
And so my “modest“ opinion - elements of Water is primary, and it generates the antagonism - elements of Fire, and their opposition, depending on an outcome, generates two more - or elements of Air, at Fire victory, or elements of Earth, at the Water victory.
The fact that before would seem again, to us? Here again everything is simple
1. Water having won against the “Heavenly Fire“ created by it, does not destroy it completely, and concludes it as if in a dungeon - a cover, such tverd. As Fire an essence a plasma condition of substance, it strives for sphericity. Therefore its “prison“, generally repeats its outlines. As a result we receive the firm sphere filled with a flame.
2. Since. Water won, on a surface of a sphere there is a humidity, depending on thickness of a surface of “prison“ for Fire, and its relief - in some lowlands at a sufficient thickness of a surface of “prison“ can voznut reservoirs.
3. There where the surface insufficiently thick, it or caves in upward under the pressure of Fire which is torn outside, or without having sustained tension bursts, and Fire having won against “prison“ is thrown up outside and faces Water which in the form of humidity as We found out is present in a varying degree at this spherical “prison“ surface. Depending on a condition of humidity (amount of water) in the place of eruption of Fire, options are possible:
and) Water wins against Fire at once, and the patch on the place of break is created as if. It happens at underwater eruption.
) Fire at first wins against Water but the Air which turned out at the same time causes the movement on a sphere surface which in turn causes movement of Water in the form of humidity towards the place of eruption, gradually corking its type up.
4. Everything remains on the place: Fire, its “prison“ - Tverd Terrestrial, is present Air, and available Water in the form of reservoirs and humidity of the above-designated Air. And Water, still speak - it is Life.
Result: At us the round, firm ball filled with fire with availability of air and water turned out, and still some life was dragged in ….
of UR - And!!!!
we created Earth!!!!
we are a GOD!!!!
we - WATER????