How there was the Moscow subway?more than one million Muscovites and guests of the capital go down Every day under the earth for the only purpose - to reach the destination by the fastest way. On the subway. Without subway it is impossible to present life of Moscow today.
of the Subway is not only extra street transport system; its stations on which projects the best architects of the USSR - at the same time both underground monuments of architecture, and a deposit of prehistoric mollusks worked in due time, and, of course, the major reference points on a Moscow map. However whether there are a lot of Muscovites and guests of the capital knows in what year for the first time opened for passengers of metro station? What was the first line of the subway? At least date of opening of the subway is known by modern capital inhabitants? Hardly …
In a mad rhythm of life of the city Muscovites so got used to the subway that they learned not to notice it and even to be dissatisfied with it. Nevertheless, when there is at least the slightest breakage in the subway, on streets of the capital steadily there comes the traffic standstill! And, trying to get on the streets filled with traffic jams to himself home, each Muscovite will remember how it is good when there is a subway! So, get acquainted: short history Moscow subway.
The idea of construction of the subway in Moscow appeared long before the beginning of the construction - she was nominated in 1875, in 14 years after opening of the first-ever subway in London, however business then did not reach the project. In 1902 two projects of construction of the subway were offered at once. One provided construction only underground, the second suggested to build both underground, and land sites of system. In 1913 the Moscow town council developed own project of extra street railway system which was approved by City Council, however its implementation was interfered by World War I. Projects of construction of the subway in Moscow were offered both in 1916, and in 1923, and in 1925; one of them was ordered by the German transport company Siemens, but all of them remained only on paper owing to the most different reasons.
So far the Moscow authorities hoped for trams, a taxi, and also hoped for clergy (namely these structures actively interfered with construction of the subway), in Moscow there was the first traffic standstill. There was it on January 6, 1931: the huge stopper began at present Lubyanka Square and extended to all city. In June, 1931 on party plenum the decision to urgently build the subway is made. Also the route of the first line was approved: from Sokolniki to the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour and from Smolenskaya Square to Library of Lenin. In November of the same year the workers “armed“ only with shovels begin earthwork on Rusakovskaya Street. In 1932 construction was conducted already on all sites, however progressed extremely slowly, and, in fact, the main works began only in 1933 when for the aid to the Moscow metrobuilders there arrived the Donetsk miners. Built the subway mostly manually, and only on a site from Lubyanka to Okhotny Ryad the tunnelling board was applied (the last way is used for construction of the subway now).
The Moscow Metro opened the doors for passengers on May 15, 1935. Passengers did not suspect escalators stepped on unprecedented earlier that became peculiar “experimental“ - in the opening day of the “ladder-a chudesnitsa“ subway was started for the first time, its tests were not carried out earlier as construction of the subway strongly lagged behind the approved schedule, and escalators established “quick“. The route of the first line had two directions: behind Okhotny Ryad station branch towards the “Alexander Garden“ settled down. Passengers were transported by the four-carriage structures working at electric draft. Thus, from Sokolniki station through Okhotny Ryad station it was possible to go in two directions: to “Park of Culture“ and to “Smolensk“.
However such fork movement continued not for long. In 1937 the Kiyevskaya station (on this site the first metro bridge through the Moskva River was constructed), and in 1938 - “Kursk“ which together with a piece the “Alexander Garden“ - “Smolensk“ formed the Arbat line opened. Very few people know that ways from “Okhotny Ryad“ to the “Alexander Garden“ remained so far; one of them is technical, and the underground mall “Okhotny Ryad“ is at the place of the second now. In September, 1938 the third line - Gorkovsko - Zamoskvoretskaya, from Sokol station to Sverdlov Square station (“Theatrical“) opened.
In days of the Great Patriotic War construction of the subway for some time was interrupted, and on October 16, 1941 doors of the subway did not open, having generated panic among Muscovites. It was the only day in the history of the subway when it did not work. The stations of the subway located at a considerable depth became shelters for Muscovites for the period of raids of the German bombers. During all the time while raids proceeded, several tens Muscovites were born in the subway. Also in a wartime in the subway the library worked (at Kurskaya station). In May, 1942 when threat of capture of Moscow passed, construction of new stations was resumed. At all stations constructed in days of the Great Patriotic War there is a memorable plate.
After the Great Patriotic War construction of the Ring line of the subway which was originally planned precisely under the Garden ring began. However later the decision to transfer northern part of the line to connect with the purpose by ways of the subway the main stations of the capital was made. The first stations of the Ring line were open in 1950 - m, and the line in 1954 became isolated. Along with it the deep site of the Arbat line was under construction. This construction was connected with the beginning of “cold war“: stations of a deep zalozheniye had to serve as an air-raid shelter for residents of Moscow in case of war as stations of a small zalozheniye were vulnerable for bombings (the tunnel between “Arbat“ and “Smolensk“ in days of the Great Patriotic War was punched by an aviation bomb). In 1953 stations of a small zalozheniye from “Kiev“ to the “Alexander Garden“ were closed, however remained in this status not for long - in 1958 opened them again, but already as a part of the Filyovsky line.
Since 1955 in Moscow stations according to “standard project“ with the purpose to reduce the price and accelerate construction of the subway begin to be under construction. It is all familiar “identical“ stations of which it is enough on any branch of the subway. In 1950 - 1960 - x years of the line of the subway began to build from Ring towards suburbs, without connecting in the center. Were so built modern by Tagansko - Krasnopresnenskaya and Kaluzhsko - Riga lines. The central parts constructed them much later - in 1970 - x years. According to the similar scheme from 1979 to 1994 built Serpukhovsko - Timiryazevsky, Kalinin and Lublin lines.
In the middle of 1990 - x projects of monorail transport system appeared. The experimental piece was constructed from station “VDNH“ to Timiryazevskaya station. Originally the line of the monorail railroad had to go along Yaroslavskoye Highway, however this route was decided to refuse - probably, already before construction it became clear that a monorail - in fact, excursion transport. Along with a monorail projects of the so-called “easy“ subway - construction of the subway on platforms, without application of underground methods of construction appear. The experimental branch of the “easy“ subway went to the Region of Yuzhnoye Butovo, however was not widely adopted. Despite rather cheap construction “easy“ for the subway it was much more difficult in operation in comparison with “classical“ underground option of a small zalozheniye.
At the moment new stations of the subway are under construction mainly underground, routes of a small zalozheniye. Experiments in the form of monorail transport system and the “easy“ subway continue the existence, however the preference in the conditions of the capital was not given them.
Surprisingly the fact that Muscovites, daily using the subway sometimes manage to confuse among themselves its versions, calling the “easy“ subway a monorail and vice versa. Also capital inhabitants often do not know what stations were open in days of the Great Patriotic War though they live near them or use them daily. They do not know and that in a day such - on May 15. Sometimes I am visited by thought that do not happen on January 6, 1931 in Moscow of a traffic standstill - who knows in what year residents of the capital for the first time would sweep in brand new cars from Sokolniki station to “Park of Culture“ or “Smolensk“.
on a blue branch of the Moscow subway derailed Yesterday in the morning three cars. There are dead and injured. The first preliminary version of state of emergency - sharp braking in connection with removal of tension of a contact rail. Later other probable version was read - the train derailed from - for malfunctions of arrow transition. This version is taken for the worker. The Mayor of Moscow Sobyanin, having arrived to the place of an event, told that it is one of the largest accidents in the history of the Moscow subway. We express condolences to the family of the dead.