ARMENIAN ACTRESSES - FOUNDERS of THEATRICS IN THE EAST OF
Are interesting regularity that the first professional actresses, dancers and women musicians in Iran, Turkey and some other east countries of steel of the Armenian. By their example Muslim women threw down a challenge to social prejudices according to which the scene was considered as a shame, and they they the first self-expressed by means of theatrics.
Living in the Islamic states, being in the same unequal social status as well as Muslims, the Armenian women nevertheless had courage at the end of 19 - go, the beginning 20 - go centuries to step on the stage, to act in at film, to publicly sing songs and dances... In the traveling notes, in 70 - ye years 19 - go centuries, the Swedish writer - the traveler Sven Hedin wrote about the Armenians living in Iran the following: “ Armenians are very beautiful and charming. While it is impossible to hear any word from Persians, Armenians can sometimes communicate in French, they open and sociable “.
So is not casual at all that on a theatrical scene of Constantinople and Tiflis, since 1850 - x years Armenian women left first, having put an end ridiculous tradition, execution of female roles by men. (We will remember, a funny case when one viewer, vlyublitsya passionately in the actress to Gayana, without suspecting that a subject of his passion - young man). Along with the Armenian performances, the Armenian actresses participated also in statements on Turkish, Azerbaijani (Tatar), and later - in the Persian and Arab languages. Both the Turkish, and Persian specialists in drama study highly appreciated the first actresses of the national theaters.
in 1870 - e years in the Jewish theatrical company of the Turkish city of Adrianople acted the Armenian actress from Constantinople - Pistos - Araksi (Chilingiryan) (1852-1882) who in Yiddish wrote down the roles the Armenian letters. Since 1880 - x years when the Armenian performances were forbidden, the Armenian theatrical companies played performances on Turkish. Thus the Turkish society for the first time saw on a scene of women - the actresses speaking their native language. By the way, x the sister of above-mentioned Pistos - Araksi, Agavni Binemedzhyan (1859-1922) whose mastery was repeatedly noted by the Turkish press was one of the leading actresses of Turkic theatrical performances, since 1880-. The daughter Binemedzhyan, Elise Govan (1887-1981) became the prima donna of the first Turkish national theater - “ Daryulbeda “ created in 1914. About a quarter of the century which devoted itself to the Turkish theater of Elise Govan played an important role in training of the first actresses - Turkish women (Afife, Shazie). By the way, Govan happened to become also the first Turkish film actress: in 1916 one of the first Turkish feature films » came out; Binnaz “ with its participation.
of One of the first actresses of the Azerbaijani scene was also the Armenian - Alma Safrazyan (1859-1932). Since 1883 this actress together with the husband - the actor Stepan Safrazyan appeared many years on the Baku stage, in performances in Tatar.
The destiny of the dancer and actress Armen Oganyan is unique (1887-1976). Will of providence, having appeared in Iran (it got to the closed harem from where it managed to be released thanks to unsuccessful attempt of suicide), Oganyan became the foundress of the first theater of the European type in Iran. On April 9, 1910 the Persian for the first time rose by a scene: it was literaturno - musical composition which Armen Oganyan prepared together with “ Charitable society of Persians “. At action there were more than 500 women, itself Oganyan acted with the lecture “ Theatre and its moral » value; and then for the first time showed to Persians the movie. In the same 1910 brought together around itself educated young people from the Persian aristocracy and merchants, and, having secured with support of the Iranian Majlis (parliament), created “ Society of the Persian fans of » theater;. Here is how the Russian journalist M. Krinsky who is in Tehran described one of meetings of society: “ Assessors all men, and some strange dissonance it seems against east persons, suits and a situation prisustvy Europeans, efficiently listening to speeches and nervously inserting the short remarks “.
On May 21, 1910 in Tehran in Persian Gogol`s comedy » was presented; Auditor “ in statement Armen Oganyan. She played Maria Antonovna`s role, and other Armenian actress got a role of the daughter. As the press, » writes; happiness fell to its lot to become the foundress of the first national Persian theater. With rare fervor it started studying, differing in complexity, Persian, and within two months so mastered language that brilliantly coped with a role in Persian “. This important theatrical phenomenon was welcomed by newspapers of Tehran, St. Petersburg and Paris. Also other theatrical company which presented comedies on the Persian subjects was created. But after Armen Oganyan left Iran its troupe broke up. However, its contribution to history of theatrical art of Iran was already recorded, in the country the theatrical movement began.
Living in Iran Armen Oganyan studied oriental dances and since 1911 prior to the beginning of 1930 - x acted in many countries of the world as “ persidky dancer “ for the first time showing on a professional scene exotic for the western viewer of that time, ancient dances of the people of the East.
After A. Oganyan long time appeared on the Persian stage actresses - Armenians. The name of Armenian Sara - hatun which together with Turkish woman Shukufe acted in the comedy presented in tegerensky the Grandee - hotel is known. Other actress, Vardo Teryan (a scenic name Lauretta), since 1930 - x years to the death also served a persidky scene. Public activity of Armenians was important very much in formation of outlook of Persians and led to activization of participation of Persians in public life of the country. According to the Iranian specialist in drama study Ali Nasirian, the Armenians acting in the Persian theater badly knew Persian, but thanks to acting skills and high level of theater, brought up the whole generation of actresses for the Persian scene. Other Persian specialist in drama study, Sayid Nafisi, wrote that the Persians wearing a veil had no right to rise by a scene and therefore, Armenians and » were the first Iranian actresses; still nobody could rise to the level of their art “.
When at the beginning of 20 - go cinema began to get centuries into east countries, local Armenians, and in particular Armenians, took active part in creation of a new art form. And the beginning actresses, and even veterans scenes were occasionally shot in the first Turkish movies, without changing the Armenian surnames. All film experts (for example, Azerbaijanian Guseynov) mention that in the first Turkish movies female roles were played by either men, or Armenians or Greek women. The oldest Constantinople actress Baydzar Fasulyadzhyan (1845 - 1920) in 1919 in 84 - summer age acted in the movie “ Nurse “ together with the Greek actress Kalitea.
the Outstanding master of the Armenian scene Vagram Papazyan described in the memoirs shooting of one of the first Turkish movies which, according to him, was such nightmare that could put an end to life as his and his colleagues. The founder of the Turkish cinema Mukhsin Ertugrul shot in 1922 - m the movie “ The Love tragedy in Istanbul “ with participation of the Armenian and Jewish actors. One of scenes was removed on the street: the heroine - the rich Turkish woman in a veil (the performer - Azniv Minakyan) incidentally faces on the square the prodigal son (whose role was played by Vagram Papazyan). Perhaps, everything would manage safely if Papazyan and Azniv, and also the actor Ambartsum Hachanyan in a break between filming, did not begin to talk among themselves on Armenian. Suddenly the crowd and several mullahs approached a film crew. One of them asked Mukhsin as he dared to remove the Turkish woman in the afternoon, ignoring Muhammad`s ban in addition an inoverka. The mullah called crowd will finish with “ gyauram “ and the flown into a rage fans attacked a film crew: broke a chamber, brutally beat Mukhsin Ertugrul, Papazyan, other actors. Only accident rescued the first film figures of Turkey from death: on the street the French military company seemed, and the crowd right there dissipated, having left on the stone plates beaten, blood-stained with the disfigured faces, Azniv Minakyan, Mukhsina Ertugrula and Papazyan. Next day, the group nevertheless managed dosnyat a scene in other part of the city, under protection of the armed group and under cries and threats of crowd of Turks. The outstanding characteristic actress of the Armenian scene Azniv Minakyan (1864-1929) became a one of the first the Turkish film actresses. Despite tragic incident, the actress elderly already acted in two movies of Mukhsin Ertugrul.
In difference from Turkey, filmings in other Muslim country - Iran, did without blood. In 1930 the Russian Armenian Avanes Oganyan shot the first Persian picture - “ Ab and Rabi “ where there were no female characters. In 1931 - the m was removed the second Persian movie “ Revenge of the brother “ where played - Armenians Lida Matavosyan and Jasmin Joseph. The third Iranian picture was shot by above-mentioned Avanes Oganyan: the movie was called “ Haji Aga is a film actor “ female roles executed the director`s daughter - Zem Oganyan and the singer actress Asya Kostanyan. Of the first film actresses of Egypt the Armenian Araksi Oganyan (1911-1981) playing in the Armenian, Arab, Greek and Turkish theatrical companies, in 1931 was also Odiy - m she acted in the movie “ Gokh and Nauaz “.
the Similar situation and in the field of music, in particular - in vocal art. In 1870 - e years Constantinople Armenians were crazy about the singer Shazik Kyoyluyan (1854-1965) acting in operettas. So, after one of performances officers of the Russian army an applause took it the home that was bespretsedetny in the conditions of the Ottoman Empire 19 - go centuries. At the end of 1890 - x in public places and Kostantinopol`s parks speeches of the Armenian actress, the singer, the dancer and the composer Shamiram went over with huge success (1870-1955). Its songs in Turkish were popular in many countries. As for opera art, Mari - Louise Garagash (1901-1989) known under a scenic pseudonym of Maliz became the first opera singer in Turkey. Its debut before the Turkish public took place in 1929.
an Armenian was both the first opera and operetta singer of Iran - mezzo - Sato Agababyan`s soprano. Along with Lauretta she is considered one of the first professional Persian theatrical actresses. In 1925 Agababyan together with other Armenian actresses for the first time in Iran acted in operetta statement. Same
“ regularity “ it is observed in some east countries and in the field of dancing art and the ballet.
In 1919, before establishment of the Soviet power in Uzbekistan, the young Armenian Tamar Petrosyan appeared on the Uzbek stage as the dancer. Further it will become the world famous dancer with an exotic name Tamara Hanum (1908-1991). Its main contribution to history of dance is that it for the first time presented the Uzbek female dance on a professional scene, having reformed it, having made more plastic. The name of the honored actress of the USSR Tamara Hanum is widely known, however, names of two of her sisters remain unknown though they made a certain contribution to development of the Uzbek scenic culture too. Tamara Hanum`s sister - the honored actress of Uzbekistan Gavkhar Rakhimova (Goar Petrosyan) was one of the first Uzbek theatrical actresses, acting since 1920 - x years in troupe of the outstanding Uzbek theatrical figure Carry Yakubova. The name of other sister, a baletmayster and the specialist in dances Lisa Hanum (Elizabeth Petrosyan) is connected with the Karakalpak dances as she restored their rhythms and plasticity. It was a difficult task as at immigrants of deserts - Karakalpaks - never there was own dancing art. And Lisa Hanum created for these small people of Uzbekistan their own dancings, based on rich ornaments of the Karakalpak fabrics. Lisa Hanum based national ensemble of dancing of Karakalpakstan and wrote the monograph about the Karakalpak dance.
the ballet Basis in Turkey ascends by 1947 when Frenchwoman Ninet de Valois opened ballet school, actually in 1923. the dance teacher Lidiya Arzumanyan gave ballet lessons in Constantinople. The schoolgirl of the glorified Russian ballerina Olga Preobrazhenskaya, she trained many dancers. The Armenian from Tiflis Evgenia Nanasova (1915-1992) executing classical and plastic dances on the Istanbul scenes was one of her best schoolgirls.
In Iran ballet art was based thanks to three Armenian teachers. Today Iranians with gratitude remember these names: madam Cornelie, Elena Avetisyan and Sarkis Dzhambazyan.
History of the Iranian ballet begins in 1928 when the Armenian madam Cornelie began to give the first lessons of the ballet, she taught up to 1982. The honored worker of ballet pedagogics Elena Avetisyan (1910-2000) was known as madam Elena. Nee to Aegina Kantekhyan, her childhood passed in Odessa, she studied at school of the Russian ballet. In 17 years she married the Iranian Armenian and located in the Persian city of Tavriz. Here Elena Avetisyan organized the city`s first ballet school. In 1945 this school was transferred to Tehran and received the status of school, it was officially recognized by the Ministry of Culture and arts. According to 1962 about 500 pupils studied at school. For the merits madam Elena was awarded the highest awards of Iran.
I at last, the last name in a group of the Armenian founders of theatrics in the east. To the middle of 1950 - x in Lebanon there was no school of the classical ballet (establishment of scenic dance of Argentinean Elena Imaz worked). In 1956 Ania Daba`s Armenian (Odabashyan, 1928-1994) founded the Lebanon`s first ballet school. She studied the classical and modern ballet in England and Yugoslavia. About 20 years in Beirut worked “ School of the ballet of Ania Daba “ for the first time shown to the Lebanese public classical ballet statements with participation of local dancers.
was fated to become Armenians pioneers of professional theatrics in the east. Thanks to a broad outlook and genetic aspiration to all progressive, Armenian actresses had enough courage, ignoring any prejudices, endangering own life, to rise by a scene. Thus they promoted art development, promotion of culture in the east.
Sven Hedin, Genom Persien, Mesopotamien och Kaukasien. Reseminnen, Stockholm, 1887, s. 312 - 313.
M. Krinsky, Tehran (from our correspondent), “ Theatre and art “ 28. 03. 1910, N 13, page 278.
M. Krinsky, Creation of national theater in Persia, “ Theatre and art “ 1910, N 5, page 104.
Abolgosem Dzhonnati Atayi, Undertaking of the Persian theater, Tehran, 1954, page 63 - 65 (in Persian).
G. G. Movsisyan, Pages from history of the Persian theater, in sb. “ Countries and people of the Middle East “ IV, Iran, Yerevan, 1969, page 183 (in Armenian).
P. Partev, Armenians of Persia, » newspaper; Aradzh “ Paris, 15. 11. 1957, page 3 (in Armenian).
See Vagram Papazyan, Compositions in five volumes, t. 1, Yerevan, 1979, page 438 - 441 (in Armenian).
of Mohammad Ali Issari, Cinema in Iran, 1900-1979, Metuchen - London, 1989, p. 98.
See “ Soviet Russia “ 8. 02. 1974.
Candidate of Philology.