The ARMENIAN CALENDAR IN the PRISM of the MILLENNIA
There is a direct proof of existence of the Protogaykovsky calendar - the physicist`s candidate - mathematical sciences, astrophysics, kalendaroved Grigor BRUTYAN
&ndash considers; In the ancient time the kalendarovedeniye in Armenia was considered as quite rare specialty, besides very dear. But whether much we know about this science and its sources?
- Let`s begin with the fact that data of scientists on a kalendarovedeniye belong to the Christian period. We have only medieval sources. The most ancient sources, and not direct, but indirect, Movses Horenatsi`s certificates are considered. However, there are compositions relating and to earlier period. In the first half of the 5th century Andreas Wisantiyski`s calendar was translated into Armenian. And the first Armenian kalendarovedchesky composition which reached us is dated the 7th century. It is grandiose work Ananias Shirakatsi carrying the name Knnikon (Kanonikon). Chronological lists of governors in the ancient time were called as canons, and in any calendar these canons played an important role because the system of chronology decided on their help. Knnikon Shirakatsi did not reach us completely, but, fortunately, fragments from him corresponded during the different periods, and they remained to this day, though in quite distorted look.
- And in what value Knnikona from the point of view of a kalendarovedeniye?
- According to researchers, Shirakatsi`s work actually was the encyclopedia of almost all sciences - the truth, with a bias towards sciences natural. And that is extremely important, in Knnikone also the calendar including Armenian was presented. Why the kalendarovedeniye in the ancient time was considered as so rare specialty? To answer this question, it is necessary to understand that in general the system of sciences and an education system in Armenia which in the Middle Ages significantly differed from that which we know today represented. All system of sciences was divided on seven so-called Azat gitutyunner .
- Free sciences?
- I do not know, the similar translation is how adequate, but I find it difficult to offer another. This seven free sciences it was divided into 2 parts. The first part (it Horenatsi entered in Armenia) covered grammar, rhetoric and logic (or philosophy). The second part (which gained distribution in Armenia thanks to Shirakatsi) included mathematics (arithmetics, the theory of numbers etc.) geometry, astronomy and music. Be not surprised, musical canons are directly connected with laws of geometry, and theories of music are the cornerstone laws of physics and mathematics. In old times pieces of music were created only on the known canons, and the magnificent sharakana written by medieval Armenian authors quite justify similar approach to music. In a word, in the 7th century in Armenia the full education system already took place, and it is not casual that after it universities appeared. Before there were only higher schools training high-class experts in different areas, but the university education covering the widest range of sciences was not. And so, at universities training in a kalendarovedeniye began after the student seized all seven above-mentioned sciences. That is was considered that for knowledge of a calendar it is necessary to know grammar, to the rhetorician, the logician, the mathematician, geometry, astronomy and music.
- Why in the ancient time the kalendarovedeniye had such development?
- Let`s ask a question: what place is taken by a calendar in human outlook? Practically in all books narrating about calendar history you will read that the calendar was formed with development of economic activity of the person because the person needed more exact knowledge of time - he had to know when to sow when to reap a crop etc. That is only thing customer a calendar life was. In my opinion, it is extremely incorrect because such explanation of creation and development of a calendar leaves a set of questions without answers. Why, for example, the people, the millennia living in a certain territory, suddenly change the calendar, and not always to the best? If need of a calendar is explained by especially economic activity of the person, then how to explain similar changes in the absence of changes in an image of this most economic activity, climate etc.? But if, for example, we pay attention to the important historical events which were taking place on a certain piece of history of this or that nation, then it will become obvious that all radical changes of a calendar were preceded by change of religion. The religion &ndash changes; and after a while the calendar changes. So, there is some correlation, there is a communication.
- And in what it is expressed?
- What is, in fact, religion? It is system of dogmas in which we believe, and system of ceremonies and rituals which are made according to requirements of this belief. And to know the place of this or that ritual in time, we need system of temporary reference points, that is a calendar. There cannot be a religion without calendar and there cannot be a calendar which would not proceed from religion. Therefore when the religion changes, also the calendar changes. All history of mankind - to that confirmation...
- And how many time changed the Armenian calendar?
- Many times. Researches show that in pre-Christian time in Armenia there were many calendars in raznyeperioda. There is, for example, a Gaykovsky calendar according to the legend based by Gayk - primogenitor of Armenians.
- That is it is the very first Armenian calendar?
- It long time was considered as the first. But at research of this calendar I was lucky to find the facts demonstrating that it had the predecessor and it was even succeeded to restore a certain calendar which I called Protogaykovsky . But, I think, as it is not the end too...
- That is did not begin?
- I mean researches which for certain will lead to the new evidence of existence of even more ancient Armenian calendars. Information is - it should manage to be found. Calendar - very curious piece. As it has mathematical structure, easily gives in to the analysis. Analyzing this or that calendar, it is possible to find a set of the layers conducting in depth of centuries. Let`s assume, the people, the millennia living in a certain territory, changes religion, and, so, and a calendar. But any people cannot considerably erase suddenly the last culture, traces of the become obsolete religion and to accept something new from scratch. From old all the same something remains. We adopted Christianity 1700 years ago, but kept a lot of things from the pre-Christian period - names, for example, or even rituals. The same happens also to a calendar. All new Armenian Christian calendars contain let small, but the grains which remained from old pre-Christian calendars. However, these grains are randomly scattered and to aggregate them incredibly difficult, but it is possible.
- And what century the first Armenian calendar created after adoption of Christianity by Armenia is dated?
- The First calendar (it is called the Great Armenian calendar) was created in the middle of the 6th century by order of the Catholicos Movses Egvartetsi. His creator is Atanas Taronatsi - leader of the monastery Msho Surb Karapeta. The easter lists made by Taronatsi, - numbers of years, became years of the Armenian chronology. Further, in the 7th century Ananias Shirakatsi by order of the Catholicos Anastas Akoretsi created new option of this calendar which, unfortunately, was not approved by the Church Cathedral. Meanwhile works in which Shirakatsi submitted the project of a new Armenian calendar reached up to now. The part above-mentioned « is devoted to an improved version of the Armenian calendar; Knnikona - Tomar . For the first time after a long break for works Ananias Shirakatsi paid attention Grigor Magistros. It is the 10th century. It found Knnikon in archives also asked the Catholicos of Petros Getadarts to give Shirakatsi`s composition on correspondence. Exactly thanks to the made copies we have today an opportunity to investigate Knnikon otherwise, lost in archives, it would be irrevocably lost. In the 11th century two exclusively serious Armenian kalendaroved declared themselves: Ovannes Kozern and Ovannes Sarkavag - one of the largest Armenian philosophers. It made a big contribution to development of the Armenian kalendarovedeniye. The matter is that in its time the first ended 532 - a summer cycle of the Armenian calendar.
- And why one cycle lasts 532 years?
- Because in 19 years the cycle of lunar phases is repeated, in 28 years parallelism of days of week and calendar dates &ndash repeats; that is compliance of a certain number to a certain day of week. And church Christian holidays are based on moon phases, days of week and dates. At first Easter, and then already, proceeding from Easter, &ndash is defined; all other dates of holidays. Easter is defined, considering day of the vernal equinox, lunar phases and days of week. According to the solution of the Nicaean Cathedral (325 g) Easter is celebrated on the first Sunday after the first spring full moon. Having increased 19 on 28, we will receive 532 - the period for which set of all parameters repeats.
- Yes, not to do without mathematics here... So Ovannes Sarkavag made?
- In 1084 the first cycle based by Atanas Taronatsi in 552 ended. Ovannes Sarkavag created the calendar &ndash lists; so-called ecclesiastical calendars for the new cycle - next 532 years. Further he created the new Armenian calendar which was earlier not existing. From time immemorial the Armenian calendar was mobile - that is calendar year consisted of only 365 days, without use of system of a visokos. The beginning of year was not fixed - such year is called wandering. Ovannes Sarkavag created the Armenian constant, not wandering calendar, having entered day of a visokos.
- And whether ancient Armenian names of months, days of week etc. reached us?
- Yes, thanks to works Ananias Shirakatsi we know ancient Armenian names of all of months, days of month and even the name of all one o`clock in the afternoon.
- Whether It is possible, leaning on ancient calendar sources, to calculate how many all - years of the Armenian nation?
- It is possible though so far any scientist kalendaroved in the researches did not come so far. In 1974 the ceramic jug dated 33 - 32 century till Christmas was found in Chirac. On this ceramic vessel there are ornaments having calendar value. It was succeeded to restore this most ancient calendar which was very similar to the Protogaykovsky calendar which I managed to find on the basis of the analysis of the Armenian calendars which reached us. This direct proof that the Protogaykovsky calendar really existed...
the Voice of Armenia - Socially - the political newspaper.
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