Rus Articles Journal

Why the Soviet sculptor Glikman emigrated?

In Oranienbaum - Lomonosov are costed by a remarkable monument to the scientist Lomonosov in honor of which in 1948 and the city was renamed. Always interested me why the author of a monument is known very little, actually only the fact that bore an inscription behind a bust to Lomonosov: “G. Glikman, 1954“. Moreover all added in a whisper that the author of a monument emigrated abroad...

It is possible, and such veil of silence over a name of the talented author of this monument was explained by it. But now we live in such time that KGB archives - FSB open, there are fragments of memoirs of dukes and princes, names of priests - new martyrs - our fellow countrymen emerge. All notes of rambovsky local historians who were in former times doomed to lie dead freight in funds the museums can be published now.

Gabriel Davidovich Glikman in the town Beshenkovichi of the Vitebsk province of the Russian Empire was born on July 14, 1913.

In Vitebsk in the childhood in art school it had an opportunity to watch Chagall`s work, Malevich, Foam, Yudovin and other famous painters. Probably from them to Glikman who considered Marc Chagall as one of the teachers, art freedom and violence of the imagination were told inherent in him subsequently. Being a young man, he formulated for himself the motto of the art - to learn beauty and depth of human soul, to tell of it all graphic means subject to it.

In 1929 Glikman`s family moves to Leningrad - the city in which the artist was fated to live more than half a century before emigration.

In 1937 it came to the Leningrad Academy of Arts on office of a sculpture of professor Mr. Manizer from which graduated only in 1947. These 10 years of study were divided by war. Gabriel Glikman went to the front and since 1941 - go for 1945 - y was at war, having met the Victory of the Soviet troops in Berlin by the lieutenant of artillery.

After Gabriel Glikman graduates from Academy of Arts, he soon becomes one of the leading Soviet sculptors. Among the works created by it - portraits both the famous people long ago the left era, and the artist`s contemporaries: D. Shostakovich, E. Mravinsky, M. Rostropovich, V. Meyerhold, S. Mikhoels, A. Ioffe and many others. Its sculptures decorate the museums, concert halls, streets and squares of Moscow and Moscow area, St. Petersburg and Tsarskoye Selo, Saransk, Saratov...

“Pushkin is the lyceum student“ - a marble figure of work of Glikman - was exhibited at the Hermitage and is ranked as one of the best sculptural images of the great Russian poet.

One of outstanding works of Glikman - the monument to Mikhail Lomonosov - is in our Oranienbaum though art critics for some reason do not call it among creative victories of the sculptor. Though young Lomonosov on a monument is very similar to young Pushkin - the lyceum student, it is possible how the forerunner of the great Russian poet.

All years of life, creating the monumental works, Glikman secretly is engaged in painting which becomes a true subject of its self-expression. Why secretly? Glikman`s painting not only on the subject initially resisted to the Soviet ideology, but also in a form of the expression did not keep within the socialist realism Procrustean bed in any way. In special, to one to it inherent style a remarkable series of female portraits “Nevsky Avenue“, picturesque portraits of artists and literature appears: Blok, Dyagilev, Sollertinsky, Filonov, Kuzmin, Andrey Bely, Stravinsky...

Dmitry Shostakovich with whom Glikman closely communicated these years, told him somehow half in jest: “To you, Gabriel Davydovich, it is necessary to hide the works in the secret bunker for the time being...“ But Glikman did not listen to these councils - care was not in character of the artist who passed the lieutenant of artillery fronts of the Great Patriotic War.

And an exhibition of picturesque cloths 55 - the summer recognized sculptor all are took place - in 1968 Gabriel Glikman exposes the picturesque cloths in the Leningrad house of composers. And at once - a juicy scandal. The exhibition is closed by the authorities for the third day, over his creativity and personal destiny threat hangs - and from now on to it repeatedly recommend to leave the country.

Here is how remembers about 60 - summer Glikman one of founders of a samizdat of bard songs Vladimir Kovner: “The nervous, always excited, hating Councils Glikman: “Bandits, spiders … I cross the road. Militiaman. I feel - hardly keeps not to kill me - the old man with a boot in a stomach. Really you do not see?.“ Its brush possesses terrible to madness, Shostakovich and Pasternak, Mandelstam`s portraits executed by terrible pain in a prison shirt, to Tsvetaeva with a loop on a neck as if specially created as illustrations to verses of Galich“.

In 1980 Glikman makes the choice - will emigrate to Germany, to Munich where he will live before the most death on January 4, 2003. Subsequently the artist remembered that departure from the Soviet Russia was the tragic road irrevocably, but... “I escaped from there, carrying the ghost of freedom, spiritual and physical, that freedom which was presented to all to the USSR by some unrealizable substance and only secretly lived in souls“.