What was average life expectancy in the USSR and in modern Russia?
Medieval Russia in respect of average life expectancy of the person not strongly differed from the European countries. In the Middle Ages in general lived not for long. Plague, smallpox, wars, extremely low level of medicine, the highest mortality among newborns (according to some information from 10 - ti the children born by the woman 3 - 4 survived at most), hunger, prevalence of primitive agricultural work, mass accidents - all this together mowed the population in uncountable quantities.
And here in Soviet period there were two multidirectional tendencies. Average life expectancy of the population on the general background of repressions (“red terror“, “collectivization“, “Stalinism“) if did not decrease, then grew at turtle rates. How many lives, generally man`s, civil war, plus revolution, plus collectivization and elimination of a kulachestvo and the bourgeoisie carried away as the class is for certain unknown. Hunger in Ukraine, “red terror“ etc. According to some demographers, about 60 million people (!) became the victims of Bolsheviks by the beginning of the Second World War . Total losses for hunger, collectivizations, class fight, Stalin`s repression, civil war, sovetsko - the Finnish war mean.
More women managed to live up to deep gray hairs and against a set of early death of young people and people of middle age (soldiers, victims of political repression, quite high mortality of young women at the abortions forbidden then officially) the statistics of average life expectancy in the USSR since 1917 - go on the beginning of the Second World War especially did not please. In 1917 - the m to year of SPZh across the USSR was made by 32 years, and in 1939 - m - 42 years (a source: Urlanis B. U. Birth rate and life expectancy in the USSR. M, 1963)
Then in our history the most terrible war in world history - the Great Patriotic War happened, and the country lost, by different calculations, about 28 million people. Someone in general gives number in 45 million, someone in 26 million. Seemingly now the official figure of human losses of the USSR in days of the Second World War equals 27 million people. In the majority, it is men again, and young, and even without mustache, and also men of middle age. It is clear, that against catastrophic military and civil losses of the population in days of the Second World War average life expectancy statistically “fell below a plinth“.
But here, at last, war terminated, Stalin died then. Post-war repressions were not so mass as in 37 any more - m to year, and Khrushchev`s thaw slowly comes and further goes peace (surprisingly!) development of the Soviet state. In the country there is no hunger, the cities are under construction, there is no war, the medicine actively develops. The state undertakes burden of expenses on free medicine, education, employment of each citizen. And the people respond positively to obvious improvement of quality of existence: average life expectancy grows in the USSR, and so-called “stagnation“ of Brezhnev`s times (SPZh for 1975 already makes 70 years) well influences this indicator.
People live willingly and long, give birth to children, are treated free of charge . The Soviet medicine is highly appreciated not only in the country, but also admits many corners of the world. Hundreds of thousands of young students from around the world go to medical, and other HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS of the USSR studies as doctors, teachers, engineers. Blossoming of the Soviet higher and secondary vocational education falls on those times. People get used that, despite cataclysms in the world, they will have a workplace, advance payment and a salary, utility payments cheap and if carries and to have patience, then sooner or later the state will give quite comfortable apartment or the room in the new house. Yes, there is a deficiency of both products, and clothes, and cars, but the people somehow with it get used, “turn“, getting the necessary goods, there goes once a year to Sochi or the Crimea and lives is rather poor, but is quite worthy, so to say.
The USSR, however, sustained big human losses unless on the alcoholic front because citizens drank, and saw actively, and large doses of alcohol will break any, even powerful organism. Then, when there passed the antialcoholic company of Gorbachev 1985 - go years, not only birth rate, but also average life expectancy increased. Stability in life which is wrapped in powerful rise in average life expectancy in the USSR, and then is characteristic of Soviet period of an era of “stagnation“ and till Gorbachev`s era the country was included to 1985 - mu to year into the top ten of the countries of the world from high SPZh (71,4 years).
But then the same Gorbachev began to pull down the country, and citizens not special and that both resisted it, and burst terrible 90 - e years with mass extinction of the population, the international conflicts, the Chechen wars, the sea of “fake“ and cheap alcohol, shootouts and a breath-taking state, sometimes beggarly, domestic medicine. The country was again filled in with blood, filled up with corpses of men, young and average on age (women were more adapted for changes and them perished much less) and average life expectancy against deterioration of the life and a breath-taking condition of medicine went down again having reached 56 years for men in 1997 - m to year.
Besides millions of young women left to the western countries, having married foreigners. Stretched there and capable men (“brain drain“) that occurs to this day. All this made old the population even more, the coefficient elderly in relation to young people means. And demographic “hole“ 90 - x when in general women almost did not give birth, just now begins to beat our system of the higher education. The moment when the number of graduates of schools with senior secondary education is nearly several times below, than number of places at institutes and universities will come soon! Arrive where you want! All this echoes 90 - x.
Now, since the beginning of 2000 - x years, the situation with birth rate is corrected, and it would be desirable that the tendency of increase in average life expectancy remained further. However, it grows parameter not due to mass birth rate, and due to aging of all population in general. That eats due to increase in number of elderly people in general. But nevertheless women give birth, and, I hope, no revolutions, repressions, hunger and genocide at least in the near future in Russia will exist. Will be enough, “gorged on“ already. There is a wish for just long period of peaceful development. And there our children and grandsons will solve how to them to live further.
Though, for certain, and the Egyptian citizens also did not represent few years ago that the Arab spring and the subsequent shocks will rush into their measured life. Tens of thousands of the killed and dead in Syria did not count up minutes to civil war too. The world boils slowly and as further everything will turn back not clearly. But nevertheless it would be desirable hopes that the bowl of the next fratricidal war … passes Russia of
is A little statistics: About 135 million people lived in Russia to the first Russian revolution of 1905. The maximum number of inhabitants was recorded in the Soviet years, at the end of existence of the USSR, the population of all Union reached nearly 290 million people (1991). Recent population census of Russia 2010 - go years gave figure in 145 million people, the truth at the beginning of 20 - go the Russian Empire was huge centuries and included part of Poland, all Finland, the majority of the large republics of the former USSR.
In the Soviet time, however, already far after the Second World War, at the time of so-called Brezhnev`s “stagnation“ one more size - record life expectancy of people was taken. Now it makes in Russia as of 2011 - y year 70,3 years. For men - 64,3 years, for women - 76,1.