Balasanyan(ts Sergey Artemovich is the author of the first Tajik professional opera
Balasanyan(ts Sergey Artemovich (26. 08. 1902, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan - 03. 06. 1982, Moscow) - author of the first Tajik professional opera “ Revolt to Vosa “ (1939), founder of the Tajik musical theater.
In 1936, by the invitation of Management for arts Tajik the Soviet Socialist Republic, Sergey Artemovich from Moscow arrived to Stalinabad (nowadays Dushanbe) where lived and worked till 1943. Studying the Tajik folklore, Balasanyan wrote down over 500 of his samples, having visited many including remote, areas of the republic.
B 1939 - 1943 - chairman of the Union of composers of Tajikistan.
B 1942 - 1943 - artistic director of the Tajik opera theater.
In 1937 Balasanyan writes the musical drama to Vosa (A. Dekhotya`s play, M. Tursun - the back, G. Abdullo). She was a forerunner of his first opera Revolt to Vosa (1939) who became the first Tajik professional opera. At the heart of its plot - revolt of peasants against local feudal lords of 1883 - 85 under leadership legendary to Vosa. In 1941 there is an opera Kov`s Smith (libras. A. Lakhuti based on Shakhnam Firdousi) -
“ I wanted to use more widely rich metrorhythmic opportunities of the Tajik folklore... Here I sought to find wider opera style... “ - Balasanyan wrote.
In 1941 operas “ Revolt to Vosa “ and “ Kov`s Smith “ were executed in Moscow on decade of literature and art of Tajikistan. In the years of war Balasanyan who became the first chairman of the board of the Union of composers of Tajikistan continues the vigorous composer and public work. In 1942 - 43 it - the artistic director of opera theater in Dushanbe. In a co-authorship with the Tajik composer Z. Shakhidi Balasanyan creates the musical comedy “ Roziya “ (1942), and also musical drama “ Song of anger “ (1942) - the works which became a response to war events.
In 1943 the composer moves to Moscow. He works as the vice-chairman of All-Union radio committee (1949 - 54), then (at first incidentally, and since 1955 constantly) teaches in the Moscow conservatory. But its communications with the Tajik music were not interrupted. Balasanyan writes the well-known ballet « to this period; Leyli and Medzhnun “ (1947) and opera “ Bakhtior and Nisso “ (1954) (according to P. Luknitsky Nisso`s novel) - the first Tajik opera which cornerstone the plot close to the present is (the oppressed residents of the Pamir settlement Siatang gradually realize arrival of new life).
In the ballet “ Leyli and Medzhnun “ Balasanyan addressed the Indian option of the known east legend according to which Leyli is a priestess in the temple (libras. S. Penina). In the second edition of the ballet (1956) the scene of action is transferred to the ancient state Sogdiana which was on the place of modern Tajikistan. In this edition the composer uses national subjects, realizes the Tajik national customs (a festival of tulips). The musical dramatic art of the ballet is based on keynotes. They allocated also the main characters - Leyli and Medzhnun who are eternally aspiring to each other, which meetings (which are taking place actually or imagined) - duet adagios - are the major moments in action development. They shade the lyricism, psychological fullness crowd scenes, various on character, - dances of girls and man`s dances. In 1964. Balasanyan does the third edition of the ballet in which it was put on the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre of the USSR and the Kremlin Palace of Congresses (the main parts were performed by N. Bessmertnova and V. Vasilyev).
In 1956 S. Balasanyan addresses the Afghan music. It - The Afghan suite for an orchestra in which the elements of dance are embodied in its various manifestations then the Afghan pictures (1959) &ndash appear; a cycle from five miniatures, light on mood.
The most important sphere of creativity of Balasanyan is connected with the Armenian culture. First address to her - romances on verses of Vagan Teryan (1944) and classic of national poetry Avetik Isaakyan (1955).
Large artistic triumphs became orchestral compositions - The Armenian rhapsody of brightly concert character (1944) and especially the suite Seven Armenian songs (1955) which the composer defined as genre scenes - pictures.
Elegantly - impressionistichen orchestral style of the composition cast by pictures of life and the nature of Armenia. In Seven Armenian songs Balasanyan used melodies from the Ethnographic collection of Komitas. Remarkable quality of this music - wise tactfulness in the address with the national primary source, - Balasanyan`s pupil composer Yu. Butsko writes. Komitas`s collection inspired many years later Balasanyan on the fundamental work - its processing for a piano. So there are Songs of Armenia (1969) - 100 miniatures united in 6 notebooks. The composer strictly follows an order of an arrangement of the melodies which are written down by Komitas without changing in them any sound. Also Nine songs of Komitas for mezzo - a soprano and a baritone accompanied by an orchestra (1956), Eight plays for a string band on Komitas (1971) subjects, Six plays for a violin and a piano (1970) are connected with Komitas`s creativity. One more name in the history of the Armenian culture drew Balasanyan`s attention - ashug Sayat - Is new. At first he writes music to a dramatized programme of Sayat - Is new (1956) according to G. Saryan`s poem, then does Three processings of songs of Sayat - Are new to a voice and a piano (1957).
The Second symphony for a string band (1974) in which material of ancient Armenian monodichesky tunes is used also is connected with the Armenian music. One more considerable page of creativity of Balasanyan is connected with culture of India and Indonesia. He writes music to dramatized programmes “ » water Tree; (1955) and “ Flowers red “ (1956) according to Krishnan Chandra`s stories; to the play of N. Guseva Ramayana (1960) put in the Central children`s theater; Five romances on verses of the Indian poet Suryakant of Tripatkhi Nirano (1965), the Island of Indonesia (1960, 6 exotic peyzazhno - conversations), do processings of four Indonesian children`s songs of Rennie Putiray Kai for a voice and a piano (1961).
In 1962 - 63 the composer creates the ballet “ Shakuntala “ (on odnoy. to Kalidasa`s drama). Balasanyan studies folklore, culture of India. For this purpose he makes a trip to this country in 1961. The same year there are an orchestral Rhapsody on Rabindranath Tagore`s subjects based on original melodies of Tagore and Six songs of Rabindranath Tagore for a voice and an orchestra. With Tagore at Sergey Artemyevich Balasanyan special proximity, - the pupil N. Korndorf, &ndash considers it; Tagore - his writer, is also expressed it not only in compositions on subjects of this writer, but also in a certain spiritual relationship of artists.
The geography of creative interests of Balasanyan is not limited to the listed works. The composer addressed also folklore of Africa (Four national songs of Africa for a voice with a piano - 1961), Latin America (Two songs of Latin America for a voice with a piano - 1961), wrote openly emotional 5 ballads my edge for a baritone from a piano on verses of the Cameroonian poet Elolonge of Epanya Yondo (1962). From this cycle there is a way to the Symphony for chorus a cappella on E. Mezhelaytis`s verses and which K. Kuliyeva (1968), 3 parts (Buchenwald bells, the Lullaby the song, Ikariada) are united by a subject of philosophical reflection about destinies of the person and mankind.
Among the last compositions of Balasanyan - lyrically the frank Sonata for a violoncello of solo (1976), vokalno - the tool poem Amethyst (on Art. E. Mezhelaytis based on Tagore - 1977). (In 1971 Mr. Balasanyan and Mezhelaytis together made a trip to India.) In the text of Amethyst as if 2 worlds &ndash unite; Tagore`s philosophy and Mezhelaytis`s poetry.
In recent years in Balasanyan`s creativity the Armenian motives &ndash appear again; a cycle from four short stories for two pianos “ Across Armenia “ (1978), vocal cycles “ Hi to you, pleasure “ (on the Art. of G. Emin, 1979), “ From medieval Armenian poetry “ (on the Art. of N. Kuchak, 1981).
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