Rus Articles Journal

Emeralds and “artificial“ emeralds. Diamonds and “artificial“ diamonds. What is more expensive?

Are well-known that in economy (I mean - in pure economy, without cases of the state support of own producers by creation of obstacles in a way of goods of foreign producers) everything solves a ratio of costs and profits. the way of production of “man-made“ rubies is known to

Long ago. At factory do not an artificial fake, but full-fledged crystals of a ruby and sapphire which from same, but dug out of the earth on ruby mines it is possible to distinguish only after thorough examination of the expert - the gemologist. Except rubies and sapphires, people make both emeralds and diamonds.

The same diamonds, though technical, are made in large quantities for a long time to satisfy demand for drills or saws “with a diamond edge“, or means of grinding with a diamond crumb. More than 500 million carat of technical diamonds are annually made for needs of equipment! Ponder upon this figure, it - 100 tons of diamonds annually!

Why it is not heard about replacement by artificial, cheaper diamonds of expensive natural? Diamonds “do“ with 60 - x years of the last century - why only technical?

When production of artificial diamonds only began when technologies were fulfilled, scientists asked a question too - how to make not only technical microscopic diamonds, but also the diamonds capable by the sizes to become jeweler. Experiments yielded positive result - at scientists jeweler diamonds turned out. Several synthesized crystals even facetted, having received brilliantik. There were they much less carat everyone, but quite gave in to a facet and in general - in everything were indistinguishable from the real diamonds.

The trouble was in technological difficulties. To receive technical diamonds is one. And here to grow up a jeweler crystal - business absolutely another. Synthesis of diamonds requires the huge pressure and temperature, and growth of a crystal of diamond - rather slow process. And to keep the necessary parameters in the necessary borders (when right at the beginning synthesis of diamond dust had in general explosive character) - very difficult business.

Even small kristallik, in carat shares, grow not really quickly, and on production of semi-karat crystals solid time is required. Such time cannot give the device making diamonds - fails from - for supertemperatures and superpressure. It was necessary to refuse idea of production of jeweler artificial diamonds for economic reasons. Though, probably, those several artificially created brilliantik still decorate someone`s ear rings.

An emerald, as well as a ruby or diamond, - very much and very expensive stone. Today the majority of emeralds of jeweler quality are got in Colombia, Brazil and Zambia. Unlike rubies, artificial emeralds are made in much smaller quantities. All firms making artificial emeralds keep technological features of processes a secret. At the very end of XIX - go centuries Otfel and Pere carried out the first successful synthesis of artificial emeralds. In the beginning received 14 grams of small crystals, allegedly emeralds. Change of technology led to increase in crystals in sizes up to 1 mm.

In 30 - e years of XX - go centuries artificial emeralds were made by Farbenindustri`s firm, during world war synthesis was stopped. It is known that artificial emeralds were made by Chetem and by Zhilson`s method. It is considered to be that now artificial emeralds receive or a hydrothermal method, or from solution in fusion.

In a receiving method from solution in fusion (fusion - reactionary) two main components of an emerald - an oxide of beryllium (VEO) and aluminum ( O 3 ) - dissolve Al 2 in the playena (solvent), lithium molybdate, and the third component, silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), floats on a solution surface. In order that silicon dioxide floated, it is necessary to support density of “solvent“ precisely. Above the place of crystallization of an emerald place a platinum grid in order to avoid emerging of a crystal of an emerald.

A hydrothermal method - attempt to repeat process of growth of emeralds in the nature. For dissolution of an emerald not molybdate of lithium or other fusion of salt, but water is used with high pressures and temperatures. Solubility of an emerald quickly grows in water with increase in its temperature up to 400 °C. At such temperatures water extremely quickly evaporates therefore for a hydrothermal method it is necessary to use rather strong vessels capable to maintain the high pressures created by water vapor when heating to high temperatures, exceeding atmospheric approximately by 1000 times. Problems at synthesis of emeralds too - that if the set of crystals grows, then all of them will be small. One of ways of a solution - use of the inoculating small kristallik serving as the centers of crystallization.

It is known that emeralds up to 2 carat in size are made, they are on sale at the price approximately in 1/10 from the price of the real stone. At synthesis emeralds considerably of the bigger size are made, but in view of a set of defects of the received crystals at a facet of emeralds of the size more than 2 carats it was not possible to receive.

The diamonds synthesized by the person are on sale since 1999 - go years. These are small crystals too, and they are sold at the price 1/10 from the price of the real diamond too.

Both “man-made“ emeralds, and “man-made“ rubies though are approximately very similar on natural, nevertheless differ from them. But it is possible to find this difference only by difficult checks in specialized laboratories.