Artificial jewelry. What everything began with?
People literally since the beginning of times, since that moment as they became people, loved all bright, decorating themselves with feathers and bones in the beginning, and then doing bracelets, necklaces and so forth of the most different materials. Eventually on an equal basis with jewels and metals also artificial components were used.
B one of the most ancient necklaces found near Nineveh and Assyria and dated scientists - archeologists the period about 7000 years ago, one of beads not obsidianovy, as all others, and “as if obsidianovy“. Made of the burned clay, covered with black clay and burned on - new, it “makes impression“ made of obsidian which at the manufacturer of a necklace, obviously, just was not enough too.
Slightly later people in the territory of Mesopotamia began to make a beads from steatite. Steatite, the hydrated magnesium silicate - a stone, but very fragile, it is easily possible to cut and make it of it a bead. And here if to burn ready beads, heating does them strong, and then, already burned, they were covered with color glaze, and after new roasting the beads similar to the presents, from very valuable imported stone turned out (depending on color of glaze). Subsequently in the same place, allegedly about 4500 years BC, the faience which became for the millennia a basis of production of a beads was invented.
Mass production of imitations of jewels was mastered by ancient Egyptians. They very much highly appreciated green and blue stones and imported turquoise from fields on the Sinai Peninsula, and the emeralds imported by them and lazurite were got even in the territory of present Afghanistan. Certainly, always the quantity of the imported jewelry was less, than number of buyers of products.
Egyptians put production of artificial substitutes of lazurite and turquoise on a stream, having provided with a beads mass (in some sense) the consumer. Small crushed quartz powder with necessary additives was mixed with water for obtaining pastelike weight which then was formed manually in special molds for production of beads, scarabs and other objects. Small beads strung at once on a thread which burned out in the course of roasting, and large beads punctured with a sharp thin object before roasting while they still were soft.
Ready faience beads became covered with color glaze - and after repeated roasting absolutely resembled precious products from turquoise or lazurite. The bead in the form of a scarab made of lazurite would be very expensive since for its production it is necessary to find a stone of the necessary size, then to cut out it, making a figure of a scarab, then to drill, risking to split. And from faience everything turned out easily and simply - paste of faience was formed in a special mold as tens and hundreds of beads to it, then punctured with a thin and sharp hairpin, allowed to dry up and burned, doing strong. The white bead in the form of a scarab was covered with glaze - and again burned in the furnace. And, as far as this bead was similar to original - depended on art of the master doing and applying color glaze on faience.
Archeologists consider that such production in Egypt was begun approximately in 4000 years BC and during near 3500th year BC already reached perfection. Work with faience and production of a beads “under lazurite“ and “under turquoise“ proceeded until the end of an era of Ancient Egypt. Few what production can brag of multithousand-year history.
However such production suits for opaque stones, rubies or emeralds so will not manage to be imitated. They were learned to be forged beautifully much later. But also nowadays, say, “the presents counterfeit“ are of the emeralds which are grown up by people in laboratory by Zhilson`s method not much more expensive, than simply found gold prospectors where - nibud Brazil.