Rus Articles Journal

Who such Picts? Part 2

Romans conquered Britain forty years (43 - 83). It seems as won. Picts sat on the edge of the earth behind which only waves, and listened to stories of numerous refugees from the South: Romans are the cruel and lewd, greedy unbridled savages for whom there is nothing sacred.

The Roman Britain the deputy of Britain Gney Yuli Agricola subordinated to

B 82 Northumbria and led the legions further on the North.

In the following, 83 - Fight at Graupiysky mountains. In spite of the fact that the army of Picts represented a militia, and different tribes, her commanders managed to organize a regular system and to realize some tactical moves. But Romans were stronger and won. Won, declared a full and final gain of the Island and withdrew troops on the South.

Agricola was recalled soon to Rome. Purely formally Caledonia was considered as the Roman territory, but none of Romans risked to appear there.

However, a story about elimination, or even disappearance from the ends of the Ninth legion - exaggeration repeated, like “The song about Roland“. In the 82nd Picts strong punished the Ninth Spanish for disgusting execution of guard duty, but business all - did not reach full defeat.

In the 123rd the emperor Adrian was forced to recognize the real situation and to designate a clear boundary of the Empire. The remains of Hadrian`s Wall also now can be seen, it passed from the sea to the sea through present Newcastle and Carlisle.

In twenty years Romans decided to snatch still a piece. Constructed Antonin`s shaft, from the Fort to Clyde. But soon again withdrew troops on Hadrian`s Wall.

Several times the Roman emperors were declared to Britain and made campaigns to Caledonia. It seems as victorious, but without visible effect.

Groups of Picts regularly got on the territory of the Roman Britain, despite of shaft and legions sitting on them. Made walks across Northumbria (it then was called Britain Younger) and, to the shame, were engaged in robberies. Sometimes Picts indulged in this reprehensible occupation in the company with adventurers from Iberniya (Ireland). It is considered that Romans nicknamed the iberniyets plundering their cities, cattle.

At the end of 367 Picts, cattle, attakotta and saxophones by big forces intruded in the Roman Britain and reached nearly Londiniya. At the same time francs and too saxophones intruded in the Roman Gallia. Nearly a year all of them wandered about the Roman provinces, but did not try to be fixed especially. The fact that simultaneous attack was in advance prepared and carefully coordinated does not raise doubts. It is quite probable that participated in plot as well the Roman legionaries - suspiciously revolt in garrisons of Hadrian`s Wall broke out in time. This incident is called, depending on the point of view, “Plot of Barbarians“ or “Great Plot“.

Picts with cattle terrorized the Roman Britain, even for a long time after it became already and not Roman. Of course, a story about how in 445 Vortigern called yut for protection of Britain against Picts and cattle, is quite transparent. But if objectively, then settled down (since 500) in the center of Britain aggressive angla forced Picts to be more modest.

However, then Picts of angl and okorotila. In 685 angla suffered from Picts the hardest defeat in fight at Nekhtansmere and lost the leading positions on the Island. If not Nekhtansmer, present residents of England would be called not Anglo-Saxons, and just anglam and in general is unclear, as if history turned.

In general medieval Picts won many different fights - with cattle, with Britons, with the same angla. Lost too. But it is a subject not for article, and even not for a series.

Christianity

Still Ninian (360 - 432) Saint rather successfully preached Christianity among Picts. Turned were, otherwise who would build churches? And churches were under construction.

About two hundred years among Picts there was a freedom of worship, want - be a Christian, you want - worship ancient piktsky gods.

Somewhere between the 570 and 580 Saint of Columbus Bride convinced, the king of northern Picts, the most powerful and probably Supreme, to make Christianity the state religion. Since these times Picts are already quite real Christians.

Presents and not absolutely.

While Rome and Constantinople developed the principles and creeds, preachers preached. Preached, without knowing yet what theories will be recognized orthodox and what are declared by heresy. Here also it turned out so that Celtic, and behind it and piktsky churches strikingly differed from orthodox Catholic. It caused a set of problems subsequently and mnogazhda hallooed.

Great Piktaviya the Roman historians call

twelve piktsky tribes. Clear business, they can be mistaken, tribes can connect and be divided, be destroyed and be formed again. So can, and not twelve. But about that.

Sometimes these tribes with each other were at war and the earth of neighbors took. Nevertheless, in general, was which - that, them connecting. Among leaders of tribes, and then kings, there was one, being considered as the main thing or, at least, the most abrupt. From the beginning of times (as far as allow to glance written sources) northern Picts, Caledonia and their descendants were leaders of community.

At the end of the 7th century to the forefront there is Fortri`s kingdom. Or Fortriu (not really audible unaccented At at the end).

Fortriu`s territory somehow at historians moves according to the card, from Pertshayr to Moray, depending on the researcher`s views, there is such business. In historical science - a case ordinary. Fortriu - the southern Picts, or more - less northern, or in general renamed Caledonia - a question still open. Though, here all - the royal palace which traces are found in Forteviota, near Perth - for the southern version.

Under the auspices of Fortriu at the end of VII, practically, after a victory at Nekhtansmere in 685, centralization process began (or sharply amplified). Piktaviya the 8th century - the strong medieval kingdom, rather big - from the sea to the sea and from the sea to the Fort.

Clear business, formation of statehood did not do without civil war which began in 724 and proceeded to 732 when power was finally seized by cunning and aggressive Engus poppy Feargus. At it and his successors Piktaviya (or Fortriu) all grew and got stronger. So far Vikings did not appear.

And what cattle?

Yes, cattle. But about them - in the following article.