What city is called the father of the cities Belarusian? To ancient Polotsk of 1150 of
In the ancient chronicles dated 862 - the m year of our era, is for the first time mentioned the oldest city of modern Belarus Polotsk. Comes to a circle 1150. But it, certainly, agrees to the way of dating of formation of the cities accepted in science.
Actually Belarusian archeologists are sure that on the place of Polotsk the settlement existed at least in the 7th century BC. Only as it initially was called, nobody knows.
And if to argue sensibly, then all places, good for settlements, on Earth were developed by people in general in immemorial times when nobody wrote chronicles yet, or they did not remain. Therefore, if it is impossible to establish exact date of birth of the old city, really noted current 2012 official 1150 - the anniversary of the first mention of Polotsk in written sources.
Polotsk is located on both river banks the Western Dvina, in the place of falling into it of the small rivulet of Polota. The main river keeps the name only to border with Latvia, further it carries the name Daugava which flows into the Baltic Sea in the vicinity of Riga.
The biography of Polotsk abounds with the numerous real and thought-up stories. Among them - a legend of visit of Polotsk by Peter I. He looked after the village Ekiman next downstream. Considered that here it is possible to build port. Also pronounced the words entered in Polotchina`s history: “Ekiman - seaport“. But these dreams were not fated to be carried out. At least till this day.
From the most significant names of the Polotsk princes who became ancient history undoubtedly it is necessary to mention Vseslav Bryachislavich`s , the ruling principality (with breaks) from 1044 to 1101.
It was the outstanding politician of the time. He was the only representative of the Polotsk branch of Ryurik dynasty, short time governing and on the Kiev grand-ducal throne (1068 - 1069). Together with the father - the prince Bryachislav they ruled the Polotsk principality practically all eleventh century. Today it is difficult to believe in it!
Vseslav was the esteemed and wise governor. Citizens of the prince did not doubt that God allocated him with magic powers. People attributed it ability to turn into a zolotorogy deer, a clear falcon and a gray wolf. Therefore also the nickname which the people gave to Vseslav sounds very beautifully - Charodey. Vseslav Charodey not only became history, but already later, after death, legends of his life turned him into the fairy tale character.
During Vseslav Charodey`s government the Polotsk principality reached the highest blossoming. One of the earliest temples of orthodox Russia - St. Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk was built (1044 - 1066) . Similar temples were also built in the centers of two other strongest principalities of ancient Russia - in Kiev and Novgorod. In total St. Sophia Cathedrals in ancient Russia was three. Polotsk costs on the high right coast of Dvina, beautifully towering over the city. The cathedral endured several destructions and reorganizations. From initial construction only the basement part of the base and three apses - elements of altar east part of a wall remained.
Initial construction of Sofiyki had to emphasize force and independence of the orthodox Polotsk principality. Polotsk by right was one of the centers of Christianity on East Slavic lands. Later numerous reorganizations of the building cardinally changed its appearance, having made it similar to a typical Catholic cathedral. Or, as experts “write the cathedral was restored in the form of vilensky baroque“. Vilno, by the way, former name of Vilnius.
The Polotsk St. Sophia Cathedral a long time really was Catholic. Such is history and many other temples of Belarus: at various times Orthodox Christians became Catholic and vice versa. But that is characteristic, in Belarus people of different religious faiths, as a rule, among themselves were not at enmity.
Presently St. Sophia Cathedral is turned into the museum where it is possible not only to listen to a concert of a wonderful organ music, but also to carry out civil wedding ritual. Certainly, it not wedding, but program of ritual very beautiful and touching. Many newly married couples participate in this unusual ceremony.
With a name of Vseslav Bryachislavich it is connected as well the most esteemed Belarusian sacred of Efrosinya Polotsk (1110 - 1173 ). It had to Vseslav Charodey the granddaughter.
The name which parents named the girl was given it in honor of the wise princess Predslava in the period of which life the Polotsk principality became independent of Kiev. And to the little princess Predslava life of the notable and rich woman of that time was prepared.
When the girl was 12 years old, to the daughter of the Polotsk prince matchmakers from eminent neighbors stretched. Parents already chose the most worthy when their plans were destroyed.
The girl who is brought up in orthodox belief went to visit the native aunt once - the Mother Superior of convent - and did not come back home from there. It accepted tonsured and since that moment found a monastic name of Efrosinya .
Efrosinye Polotsk was surprisingly the purposeful person urged to strengthen Orthodoxy on the Polotsk earth. Once, when it did not execute also twenty years, the angel who specified by it that it founded the new monastery in one of nearby villages dreamed it.
Without waiting for morning, it together with other nun went to the specified place, having taken with itself some most expensive to it books. And there the convent called subsequently Spaso`s - Efrosinyevsky was constructed over time .
the Foundress of the monastery - the Mother Superior Efrosinya makes over time the decision to build the stone temple and sets this task for the monk - the architect Ioann. Ioann created the project and directed construction. The frescos executed by other monk remained anonymous. History did not keep a name of the master.
Spaso - Transfiguration Cathedral - the most ancient Orthodox church of Belarus which kept the initial shape. It was constructed in the middle of the twelfth century. Any conqueror did not dare to raise a hand against it the temple - a child of Efrosinyi. It kept not only appearance, but also it is a lot of frescos written with love the unknown artist invited Efrosinyey for work on lists.
One of well remained frescos is the fresco sacred with a gold nimbus around the head. It is considered that this fresco which age over 800 years, represents the mother superior, the Mother Superior Efrosinyyu whom the master at her life considered sacred.
Such is short history of young Polotsk of the period of blossoming. About later times and celebration of anniversary in the following article.