Pavements of St. Petersburg. In Russia two troubles?
All guests of Russia - from the most prehistoric - noted both “quality“ of our roads, and dirt on streets of the cities of that time. It is impossible to tell that did not try to fight against it - in Novgorod, for example, the majority of streets was paved poles and hewn executioner`s blocks. Still archeologists dig in cracks of these ancient pavements, searching for the coins which are once gone there and any other trifle. At pavements of St. Petersburg - another story altogether.
Planning construction of St. Petersburg, the future capital, the tsar Pyotr dreamed to build the city European, not so similar to old Moscow. However among bogs of Sankt - Piterburkh stones so just did not roll, and originally his streets represented just glades with ditches for water drainage.
The tsar - the reformer easily found a solution of the problem of lack of a stone on a city site. In 1710 “the stone tax“ was assigned to residents - everyone had to deliver for social needs of 100 stones.
However it appeared insufficiently, and the decree on a supply of stones to the new capital under which each arriving cart had to bring on 3 stones (weight not less than 5 pounds), and each floating ship - depending on the vessel size - from 10 to 30 stones weighing not less than 10 pounds was adopted on October 24, 1714. And from everyone “the stone which is not gathered additionally“ took for disobedience and “shortage“ on 1 ten-kopeck coin. The decree on a stone supply, probably, was very useful as cancelled it only in 1776.
And slightly earlier, in September of the same 1714, one more decree - that owners of houses have to pave sidewalks near the houses was issued: “Against the to the house beside a structure and fences to make to fall of this year stone bridges of a wild stone two arshins wide, and in length all yard“.
Thus at all length of streets of that time they, streets, had to find one-and-a-half-meter sidewalks on both sides. Very and very convenient decree, isn`t that so? State institutions got sidewalks at public expense. By the end of the 18th century the most part of the central streets of St. Petersburg was paved, and here on suburbs there were dirt roads.
In 1826 over a cobblestone road (durable, but noisy and jolty) tried to lay stone or wooden floorings - kolyosoprovoda for crews, but experiences were unsuccessful. The most convenient, but expensive (demanding continuous repair) the pavement - from wooden checkers - the end faces lying on wooden, and since the beginning of the 20th century on the concrete basis, - was offered in 1825 by the inventor V. P. Guryev. At the beginning of 1830 - x years end faces covered 20-30 main streets and the areas (the first paved Nevsky Avenue), the others had a cobbled covering.
In 1839 the city “nearly“ became the pioneer in development of modern pavings in Europe - here for the first time tried to build asphalt pavements, but from - for inabilities to make good asphalt for a long time refused it.
Face pavements almost everything were good. Inexpensive in production, very convenient in operation (the tree concealed the sound made by crews at the movement), they were used very long and successfully. But in 1924 when the city was filled in with the strongest flood... on waves also those pavements floated.
After this flood (though, perhaps, at all not “from - for“ it) the end face was expelled from city streets and replaced with a diabazny tile. And already in 30 - e years (if more precisely - after 1932 - go) the main paving everything is there was an asphalt. And, as it was told in a joke, “both went, and went...“
the Present road condition is quite well known to residents. Somewhere it is dense, somewhere it is empty. “lying police officers“ of what cost one...
From a recent road-building delicacy it should be noted a paving of sidewalks and pedestrian zones in the center of St. Petersburg a concrete tile.
And from quite old story it is worth remembering about pig-iron pavements of Kronstadt. I do not know, words of the guide are how truthful, but in Kronstadt “at a tsarizma“ paved roads not a stone, not a tree, but pig-iron cylindrical dies. During all the time from the beginning of operation (years 100, and can be - and all 200) dies ground off all on couple of centimeters, and it means that their resource will allow them to sustain from 500 to 1000 more years of operation without repair.
However, present Kronstadt is paved generally by asphalt. In war an opportunity to deliver to the island - fortress metal was strongly limited, and the most part of pavements was sorted then “for needs of defense“. It is good that though about a kilometer was kept for descendants.