The principles or laws work in science? “The relaxation principle“. Part 2.
the Relaxation are a number of processes towards thermodynamic balance in macroscopic physical systems. Relaxation processes in system substantially define conditions of formation of its nonequilibrium states. The condition of macroscopic system is defined by some number of parameters, and establishment of balance on each of them can proceed differently. As the quantitative characteristic of a relaxation serves relaxation time.
Scales of times of a relaxation in diverse inorganic systems at the macrolevel are various. Electrons in conductors come to an equilibrium state for 10 - 13 - 10 - 14 with , and approach to balance of crystal structures in crust lasts geological eras.
Sometimes in the physicist - chemical and technical literature the term adaptation meets (from medieval lat. adaptatio - adaptation). But it is the term biological and means set morfofiziologichesky, behavioural, population, etc. features of a species, the providing possibility of a specific way of life of individuals in certain environmental conditions. Adaptation is called also process of development of devices. In physiology and medicine accustoming process designates also .
The relaxation principle offered by the author is illustrated by experimental examples from various field of natural sciences.
Radiochemistry . The chemical consequences of nuclear transformations studied by means of the issue messbauerovsky spectroscopy (IMS). To EMS object of research is the source scale - quanta. The possibility of its use for studying of relaxation effects on the physicist - a chemical stage after nuclear transformations is concluded in the nature of messbauerovsky transition. At disintegration of radionuclides sometimes there is messbauerovsky nuclear level which life time for different transitions lies within 10 - 6 - 10 - 10 with also defines that temporary stage (in situ) at which relaxation effects are investigated. It is also relaxation time . Thus, in messbauerovsky isotope the experiment model is created by the nature: physical process of impact on substance (radioactive transformation, self-irradiation, return) - a temporary delay (time of life of messbauerovsky level) - the registering tool (messbauerovskiya scale - quantum). The studied system “(cobalt - 57) - kationit radionuclide (KU - 2ő2) - an adsorbate“. The author found dependence of an exit of chemical forms of iron - 57 (the Fe 3+ form ) after electronic capture in atoms of cobalt - 57 (the Co 2+ form ) from elektronoaktseptorny properties of a local environment of “hot“ atoms of cobalt. Namely, an exit of the oxidized forms of iron grows at introduction to structure of a near environment of radioactive atoms of cobalt of substances with bigger ability to acceptance of electrons. That is we had an opportunity to regulate chemistry of atoms after radioactive decay!
Nuclear physics . Influence - a neutron, getting to a kernel of uranium causes its division with emission of several neutrons. It is a basis of chain reaction. Relaxation time - seconds . If we do not regulate it, atomic explosion as a result turns out. If we regulate in nuclear power plants - we receive the electric power and, further, light, heat, the movement.
Medicine . The person undergoes influence - a myocardial infarction. Relaxation time - minutes . If within half an hour to provide medical care, we receive life. If the person is lonely, we will be late - death of the individual.
Social processes . Influence - events of 1917 in the Russian Empire. Relaxation time - decades . In the presence of the regulator (Iron Curtain) we have the USSR. At its falling - disintegration of the state which unfortunately is badly regulated and, as a result, continues.
Geology . Influence - eruption of basalts on the Earth`s surface lasts hours. Relaxation time - millions of years . If these breeds remain on a surface (effusive breeds), then collapse at aeration. If are buried or injected under crust (intrusive breeds), then turn in chorosho raskristallizovanny breeds.
Family , by the way, too system nonequilibrium. Influence - the wedding moment. Relaxation time - before divorce or to death . How to operate!?