The principles or laws work in science? Part 1.
Apparently, both that, and another. Nobel Prize laureate I. R. Prigozhin “... formulno - settlement approach cannot lead to knowledge of the Nature. Now we see that descriptive sciences began to play the main role“ .
The author who was engaged in studying of multicomponent supramolecular systems within more than 30 years also came to the same conclusion. What exit? Return to phenomenological approach at higher level of providing with methods of research of the condensed systems is necessary. Since the spectral analysis of R. Bunsen their quantity increased to 100 (380 versions - for example, the method of messbauerovsky spectroscopy branches on 6 versions with different information opportunities). Leaning on this modern scientific arsenal, only and it is possible to provide new phenomenological approach to research hierarchically difficult multicomponent multiphase physics - chemical systems. Involuntarily it is necessary to come back to “the principles, rules, tendencies“ - to concepts not formal, but guiding. By the way, one of the basic methodological scientific principles of economy of thinking known since the 14th century as Okkam`s razor is broken pretty often at introduction of new terms.
So, principles . The term, naturally, Latin - from principium (the beginning, the basis). Initial value - soldiers of one of four types of the Roman infantry (principes), but not right-flank as write some authors. The principles were gathered from people who after triariyev were the most skilled in military science. In literature the following principles of development of materials are discussed. The physics - chemical, technological (thermomechanical, constructional), economic, organizational, ecological, information (databanks, expert systems, neuronets), etc.
According to the most successful definition, materials science is a science about the principles of creation of materials with the set properties. Materials turn out in spatial system “physical impact - initial substance (precursor) - relaxation physics - chemical processes of transformation of precursors - the required material“. Usually management of process of creation of materials consists in change of parameters of physical impact and structure of precursors. Parameters of influence are limited to an influence method. Recently as precursors multielement and multiphase initial substances (receiving high-temperature superconductors, direct processing of mineral raw materials etc.) are often used . Change of their structure by search - the multiple parameter task demanding big material and time expenditure.
Relaxation effects in self-organized it is possible for the nonequilibrium condensed system and it is necessary to use for management of an exit of chemical forms and phases, and, therefore, and properties of the turning-out materials. But exact data (or adequate models) about mechanisms of relaxation processes in the condensed systems on the physicist - a chemical stage of receiving materials are for this purpose necessary. They can be received only when using nondestructive methods fazovo - element research (better in in the situ mode - real time).
Generally, nonequilibrium condition of system in thermodynamics is understood as its such state from which it can spontaneously pass into other state towards balance in the conditions of isolation or at small final influence. Nonequilibrium systems arise, as a rule, at the physical processes reporting to system in general or its parts excess internal energy in comparison with energy of equilibrium system.
of the Practician shows that the nonequilibrium condensed systems - it is rather the rule, than an exception among (artificial) substances and materials existing in the nature (natural), reproduced and identified. In most cases creation of materials and a condition of their operation belong to significantly nonequilibrium systems. Quite often and material (as system) internally ravnovesen only partially.
The author offered the relaxation principle managements of properties nonequilibrium physics - chemical systems which can be formulated thus. In a case when times of a relaxation there is much more than duration of physical impact, there is a possibility of management of an exit of chemical forms, phases and, as a result, properties of substances (materials), using data on relaxation mechanisms in the nonequilibrium condensed systems on the physicist - a chemical stage of relaxation processes (including in use).
General scientific value of the relaxation principle. the Principle, is formulated on the basis of radiochemical researches, but works in nuclear physics, biology, sociology, philology, geology. About it in the following article.