The dominating paradigm brakes science? Gold and platinum
the Paradigm are the set of the scientific installations dominating during a certain historical period, representations and terms accepted and divided by scientific community and uniting most of his members. Simply, it is the dominating point of view.
Change of paradigms results not from an overpersuasion of opponents, and often just over time, after extinction of carriers of old belief.
Usually give as examples of change of paradigms:
- transition from geocentric system of the world of Ptolemaeus to heliocentric system of N. Copernicus;
- development of physics from a mechanistic picture of I. Newton to M. Planck and A. Einstein`s quantum mechanics.
I will stop on examples from geology of precious metals that is closer to heart of women, businessmen and robbers.
We will begin, naturally, with the most bleskuchy gold .
Russia to the middle of the 18th century was left without the fields of this metal. Gold was imported. Got it and “bugorshchik“ from ancient graves. Even tireless activity of Peter I could not put business of its searches in motion. Why? Was considered that “gold in the Moscow state will not be born“ because … it is cold! Here it, the first paradigm of precious metals - gold meets only in tropical countries where the scorching sunshine concern the earth!
In 1745 the peasant Erofey Markov near Yekaterinburg incidentally found flint with gold impregnations in the valley of the river of Beryozovka. One gram of gold was melted, and at a hole exposed guard. Further searches in this place were conducted two years, and only in September, 1747 it was succeeded to melt 132 more grams of gold. The first gold paradigm was so overcome, and Berezovsky`s history of the gold area began. This metal was radical (ore, dray) gold.
The same was also with loose (sand) metal. The most educated Vasily Tatishchev, the hero of Poltava, the founder of Yekaterinburg and Perm, the author of the first book on the Russian history after expedition to Siberia in 1727 wrote: “That in Siberia at ice cold climate such ore (gold) could be, in it a sumleniye considerable if only to judge what great heat solar … for this metalliya potrebno“.
It would be fair to note that M. V. Lomonosov was categorically against this paradigm. Only in 1814 a promyvalshchik L. I. Brusnitsyn found in the valley of the river of Beryozovka peschano - a clay layer with the content of gold of 200 grams on ton (already 5 grams on ton are considered industrial now). It was extracted in a year 100 kg of metal that blocked annual production of all then of the operating 30 mines. The paradigm about a “hot“ origin of gold was so overcome, and in 10 years 200 mines operated on the Urals already.
We will pass to less brilliant to platinum . Metal of dim gray color, by sight not remarkable, but heavy. In the Urals hunters used it as fraction.
Since the time of Spaniards was considered that gold and platinum always meet together (paradigm). Platinum (“ñåðåáðèøêî“ in Spanish) at gold mining in America was even thrown out that did not dilute silver and did not spoil a coin.
At the beginning of the 19th century U. Vollaston invented the platinum ignition device that increased reliability of silicon guns (a war role for progress in science). Platinum became necessary. The decree followed - to find.
Also found, but not near gold on east slope of the Urals, and on a watershed and on the western slope of the Urals (1824) where quartz (gold-bearing) isolations were not observed. Only subsequently it became clear that genesis of fields of platinum and gold absolutely different. Platinum concentrates in the ultramain breeds (dunita), and gold has a hydrothermal origin and gravitates to quartz veins. So overcame one more dragmetallny paradigm.
It is necessary to overcome one more . Now idea that native platinum has a magmatic origin dominates and concentrates in hromitosoderzhashchy dunita. The author came to a conclusion about accumulation of this metal in dunita at their steaming by the above-critical gases bearing platinum from depths in the form of complexes.
Such paradigm shift can lead to increase in the Russian reserves of native platinum in tens of times and to revision of ways of investigation of fields of this precious metal.