What nut of the most expensive in the world? A macadamia of
Australia - the amazing continent. Among other terrestrial continents it looks so as if our planet would borrow it from other planet, by it flying by. Unusual animals, unusual plants which any more in the world you will not find anywhere.
the Huge lifeless desert in the center of the continent and million-plus cities on the coast of two oceans washing it. And people developed this continent not as Asia, Africa, America. Pioneer settlements - unbearable camp, the first inhabitants - either convicts, or their security guards.
Among many surprising natives of this amazing continent there is a nut a macadamia . Most of all the macadamia is known that it is the most expensive nut in the world - over 30 dollars for kilogram.
But not only the price the macadamia is well-known. These nuts are tasty, useful and nutritious. Usefulness and nutritiousness of a macadamia is checked not for centuries - the millennia. This nut was one of the main products in a diet of the Australian natives, something like bread. There was quite enough handful of nuts for livelihood.
High cost of a macadamia is connected with difficulties of collecting and processing. Height of the fructifying tree can reach 20 meters. But the main thing, nuts of a macadamia have very strong shell. Speak, it will sustain even weight of the dump truck. Not so - simply and to break that! Complexity of processing of nuts caused low output of a macadamia, so, its high price.
The word “was“ in the previous offer costs not for nothing. For the last half a century plantations of a macadamia parted as well outside Australia: on the Hawaiian Islands, in Brazil, in California, in South Africa. Besides the Australian engineers invented the special combine for collecting a macadamia. The output of a valuable nut significantly increased, however - that is characteristic - the price of it did not fall.
A macadamia - a plant Australian, and the name its Australian. However, not from the dictionary of natives it is taken. Otherwise this nut Kendal - Kendal or a bumer, and, maybe, mullimbimb would be called. So it is called by various tribes of indigenous Australians.
The name the macadamia comes from a surname of the famous Australian chemist John Makadam (John Macadam) (1827 - 1865) . And the doctor, the geographer and the botanist Ferdinand von Muller (Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller) (1825 - 1896) appropriated this name to the plant found and described by it .
Thanks to such people as Makadam and a background Muller the country, one hundred years serving as the place of the reference of criminals, for short term turned into the country which defines development huge aziatsko now - the Pacific region. Having arrived here from all over the world, they created here, almost from scratch, science and culture.
His surname speaks about Ferdinand von Muller`s origin. He was born in the German city of Rostock. His parents early died, but the grandmother with the grandfather could give to the grandson a good education. He studied at pharmaceutical faculty of the Kiel university. Druggists then studied not only (and not so much) chemistry, but also botany. In 1847 according to the recommendation of the famous botanist Ludwig Price who just came back from Australia he sails on the far continent with two sisters at one of whom tuberculosis began. The climate of Northern Germany for it would be terrible. By the ship a background Muller did not miss. It could catch from ocean water and study several species of water plants. What speaks, first of all, that he loved the science and treated botany very seriously. Having lodged in the south of Australia, in the city of Adelaide, he researched and proceeded huge spaces in search of new plants. Articles Muller`s background about the Australian flora made it known in scientific community.
In 1851 the new Australian colony, Victoria was based. In 1853 a background Muller moves to Melbourne and becomes the main botanist at the governor of this territory. Thanks to its efforts in Melbourne the royal botanical garden was open. Having become the government official, Muller did not leave research activity. It personally described more than 2000 plants found it in botanical expeditions across South Australia. Under its management works on acclimatization of the European plants in Australia were carried out. And according to its offer in Europe, in the Caucasus, in South Africa and in the Middle East landings of the Australian eucalyptuses began. These trees consume a lot of water. Therefore a background Muller suggested to use them for drainage of bogs and destruction of malaria. In 1857 during one of the expeditions on east coast of Australia, Muller found a background and described a tree which in two years called “macadamia“ in honor of the friend and the colleague with whom he got acquainted in 1855.
John Makadam got a chemical education in Edinburgh and in Glasgow, and in 1854 graduated also from medical faculty. In 1855 J. Makadam arrives to Melbourne and quickly enough does an outstanding career here. And scientific career - he became one of the first professors of university in Melbourne, and to a pit of the large government official - Makadam was appointed the chief analytical chemist of the province Victoria and the chief physician of Melbourne. He was a member of legislative assembly of Victoria, and in 1861 fulfilled even duties of the main postmaster of the province. Besides, John Makadam was an inveterate athlete, and in August, 1858 laid the foundation to a new sport which is called the Australian soccer now. This game is very popular in Australia. It is not similar neither on European, nor to the American soccer. So John Makadam`s memory is immortalized not only in the name of the most expensive nut in the world. It can be seen also on a nice statue in Melbourne. The statue represents the first Australian soccer match between two school teams. The adult teacher who judges this match - John Makadam.