Songs of revolutions. What do we know about songs “Varshavyanka“, “You the Victim Fell“, “Safely, Companions, in a Leg“, “Safely We Will Go to Fight“?
the List of the famous revolutionary songs, of course, are not limited to “Marseillaise“ and “International“ about which I already wrote. Today I will tell about four songs, whenever possible, briefly and interestingly.
“Whirlwinds hostile blow as
“Varshavyanka“ over us, These lines filled with some Nordic gloomy courage are well-known
us spitefully oppress Powers of darkness.
fatal we engaged with enemies,
still destiny unknown wait for us...“
much. Unlike history of the song.
The name “Varshavyanka“ is not casual. The song takes the sources in Poland, and it is written was originally in Polish Vaclav Svenitsky. (And poetic) a basis of “Varshavyanka“ so-called “March of zuav“ - the song of the Polish revolt of 1863 - 64 on V. Volsky`s words became musical (the author of music is unknown still). For reference use: “death zuavam“ were called parts of the French infantry in Algeria.
“March, march, zuava,
On fight bloody,
Sacred and right -
March, zuava, march!“.
At Svenitsky became:
On fight bloody,
Sacred and right!
March, march, Warsaw!“
the Translation of the text into Russian was made by Lenin`s colleague - Gleb Krzhizhanovsky who changed a refrain only a little:
“On fight bloody,
Sacred and right -
March, march forward,
the Working people!“. For the first time Russian “Varshavyanka“ was executed by
in the same place where it was written - in Butyrsky transit prison in 1897.
“Day of our sending to Siberia came. We put to a door of a chamber of Abramovich possessing extraordinary physical force became in a circle and started singing: “Whirlwinds hostile blow over us...“
Sounds of a mighty song announced the building of Butyrsky prison. Supervisors rushed to our chamber, trying to open a door, could break the iron strength of our guard... Baptism of fire of Russian “Varshavyanka“ was so made“. Krzhizhanovsky`s Text was published by
in 1903. Two years later the song already widely warmed up during the first Russian revolution and remained on lips up to the end of Civil war.
“You the victim fell“
Feature of the majority of revolutionary songs the fact that at all the severity they always sounded optimistically and with inspiration is. It concerned even such genre as mourning march. The song “You the Victim Fell“ became initial mourning march of the Russian revolutionaries.
The question of her authorship is extremely confused. Most of researchers incline that the melody of march goes back to the mourning song “The drum before a vague regiment did not beat...“ (Art. of I. Kozlov, muses. A. Varlamova). But also information met that music was written by Nikolay Ikonnikov when he was only 10 years old, and it is popularized by F. Liszt.
The text first consisted of two poems of 1886 - “There is it tired, and chains ring...“ and actually “We the victim fell...“. In spite of the fact that the last poem was published anonymously, consider that the author at them one - Arkady Arkhangelsky (Anton Amosov`s pseudonym). Subsequently abated “There is it tired...“ dropped out of the text and the reduced version was executed.
It is interesting that in the text there are sendings to a bible story about the Valtasarovy feast. The tsar Valtasar feasted in the besieged Babylon when the hand suddenly appeared and traced on a wall mysterious words “To exchange, exchange, tequilas, uparsin“, the cities foretelling falling. And it is valid - next morning Persians took Babylon and killed Valtasar.
“... And the despot feasts in the magnificent palace,
Alarm wine filling in,
But terrible letters on a wall
are drawn long ago by a hand fatal!
The time will come - and the people,
Great, mighty, free will wake up! Forgive to
, brothers, you honestly passed
the valorous way noble! “ the mourning march revolutionaries usually sang
before death and seeing off the died companions. It was sung before execution by sailors - participants of the Kronstadt revolt of 1906. It was sung by Lenin with companions when he learned about the tragedy of “Bloody Sunday“. And in 1924 under it will send to a final journey and the leader of Bolsheviks. From 1918 to 1932 a melody “You the victim fell“ every midnight played a chiming clock of Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin.
“Safely, companions,“As I already wrote
to a leg, many revolutionary songs were created spontaneously and not one author. Quite often already famous songs undertook, and on their basis either the new text, or old was written changed under topic of the day.
The first option belongs to the song “Safely, Companions, in a Leg“ which text was written by the employee Mendeleyeva, the revolutionary Leonid Radin in 1898 when it stayed in Tagansky prison.
“Safely, companions, in a leg!
Spirit we will get stronger in fight,
In freedom kingdom the Breast we will pave the way
All of us were a man of the people,
Children of a family labor.
“Brotherly union and freedom“ -
Here our motto fighting!.“ to
It is interesting that Radin took the song as a musical basis... the German students - namely, the anthem of the Silesian association. At the time of revolutions of 1917 the song became especially popular, and everyone changed it after the own fashion. In February, 1917 sang “Will national came true...“ , and at the beginning of civil war it was sung even by kornilovets ( “Safely, kornilovets, in a leg!“ ). Anyway, initial was a Bolshevist version.
But also the musical primary source was not forgotten. In Germany the student`s anthem passed to organization of veterans of World War I “Steel Helmet“. Soon not only the German communists, but also nazis began to sing its. Funny, as those, and others took the Russian text as a basis. Only nazis naturally added a line about a swastika, artful Jews and great Hitler there. It had sad consequences for a song.
After defeat of nazis under the law on a denazification forbade it. I somewhere read reminiscence of our compatriot living in Germany who was nearly arrested when he listened on the “Safely, Companions, in a Leg“ tape recorder.
“Safely we will go to fight“
Not less motley history and at the well-known revolutionary march “Safely we will go to fight“. Let`s begin with the fact that the well-known romance was a musical basis of this song... “A white acacia clusters fragrant“, plus a refrain on motive of a hussar mazourka. Who wrote to
the text - it is unknown, but is clear that it was written at the beginning of World War I and sounded so:
“Heard, grandfathers -
Give up the business,
In a campaign gather!
We safely will go
For Russia to fight Sacred,
I as one, we will shed
As it often happens to popular songs, the text “Safely we will go to fight“ each political force remade after the own fashion. The white army of Denikin continued to sing about “Russia the Sacred“ and about the fact that “Here seemed red chains“ . At Red Army of a chain became “white“, music more vigorous and marsheobrazny, and the couplet began to sound so:
“Safely we will go to fight.
For the power of Councils
I as one we will die,
In fight for it“. As we know
, then most of the people supported Bolsheviks, White Guards and interventionists supporting them were broken, and initial version of the song became “red“.
On it I finish the cycle of articles. And finally I want to tell that, speaking about the sacrifice made on an altar of revolutions it is impossible to forget also about those freedoms and the rights which they brought. Do not think that all victims were vain.