Whether the person has excess bodies?
many scientists were sure More than hundred years ago that the person has unnecessary bodies. But, as it appeared, the Nature in vain does nothing: “excess“ bodies carry out quite certain functions in a human body. Followers of the evolutionary theory of Darwin contained
at the person about 200 superfluous as they believed, bodies and biological structures.
The famous Russian biologist Ilya Mechnikov considered that not only a blind gut with its appendage, but even all thick guts are not necessary to the person, and their removal would only be useful for functioning zheludochno - an intestinal path.
Some surgeons shared this point of view, and operations such practiced to 50 - x years of last century. Subsequently it was established that in a large intestine there is a synthesis of vitamins, and also absorption of water and salts from digestion products.
There were scientists who made bold to claim that the part of bodies has the wrong arrangement. So, the French doctor Franz Glenar performed to patients with pains in an abdominal cavity operations on change of a configuration zheludochno - an intestinal path. And though the patient after such intervention it became worse, Glenar agreed to differ.
Now scientists came to conclusion that in a human body nothing superfluous can be. Many bodies are rehabilitated, but still their large number is insufficiently studied, and their functional mission is not found out.
Almonds (tonsil) - one of bodies which was considered unnecessary - were our first defender at invasion into an organism of microbes. In almonds there are deepenings, so-called crypts in which the anti-gene composition of the substances inhaled by the person and eaten is defined. Also in tonsils protective proteins - interferon, immunoglobulin are produced.
In the first half of the XX century the American surgeons with the preventive purpose deleted tonsils. Over time it was found out that they thereby deprived an organism of the first protective barrier on the way of infections. As a result people without almonds were exposed to diseases of respiratory organs more often.
By Tonzilektomiya - removal of almonds - is carried out now only on exclusive medical indications: when they cease to carry out the functions, regenerate and become a source of infection of an organism.
There was time when Americans deleted an appendix, considering as its powder keg capable to blow up at any time. Subsequently scientists - physicians established that this body contains lymphoid fabric and also helps an organism to struggle with infections. Besides, the appendix produces the gormonopodobny substance regulating a vermicular movement of a large intestine. Oncologists claim that people with a remote appendix are exposed to cancer diseases of intestines more often.
When the person experiences cold or certain emotions, he becomes covered by pimples (goose-pimples). In the ancient time by means of these pimples the indumentum warming a body and giving a frightening look rose. From here expressions - “hair on end“ and “jimjams“.
Now the goose-pimples help kommunikatsiis other people: thanks to pimples, it is possible to learn about an emotional condition of the person. In the telecast of the Ukrainian competition “X - a Factor“ the judge Irina Dubtsova after performance of the song praised the singer and told that it on a body had pimples that demonstrates that the song reached soul. Pimples never deceive her. The performer answered: “Thanks to your pimples!“.
Until recently in textbooks in biology the tailbone was called “the rest of the reduced tail“ and a rudimental organ, that is the body which lost the major importance in the course of evolution.
As it became clear, the tailbone serves as the place of an attachment of the pelvic muscles which are responsible for maintenance of internals. At patients to whom on medical indications the tailbone was removed omission of internals was observed. Such phenomenon often occurs after serious injuries of a tailbone.
One more vitally - the important body - timus (thymus), located behind a breast, in its top part, - was considered it unnecessary earlier. Presently all know that timus - one of the principal organs which are responsible for immunity. Stem cells, getting in timus, will be transformed to T - lymphocytes, including in “a cage - killers“ which destroy viruses and bacteria.
At newborns the thymus has quite big sizes (size about heart), over time it decreases, adults have an age involution of this body. But T - lymphocytes continue to carry out protective functions. Besides, timus promotes normal work of endocrine system.
At one time physicians considered as useless body and a spleen. And in the ancient time it was even deleted to athletes, believing that it disturbs at run. But, as it appeared, the spleen is responsible for cellular immunity, carries out a role of the filter purifying blood and promotes recovering from a heart attack.
At animals is soshnikovo - the nasal body capable to distinguish pheromones that allows to be guided well in smells. The person has such body too, but it practically lost activity as a result of dying off of the nervous terminations connecting it with a brain.
And wisdom teeth remind us of far ancestors who were herbivorous and needed the strong teeth capable to fray rough vegetable food. Perhaps, they not for nothing appear, and it is worth listening to call of the Nature: to try to be closer to it more often to come back to its powerful embraces.
Attempts of improvement of the device of a human body do not stop and today. It is promoted by achievements of genetic engineering. As some gerontologists consider, the reconstructed person will be able to live till 200 years.
But whether it is worth interfering with the Nature so considerably? There is no consensus about it, unfortunately, yet.