Songs of revolutions. How there were “International“ and “Dubinushka“?
“International“ - future colleague (and in some measure the rival) “Marseillaise“ - was born in the same place, in France, but already in an era of the Commune of Paris of 1871. The author of the text - a razrisovshchik of fabrics Eugene Potie - the revolutionary activity it is similar to Gavroche began still the boy, at the time of July revolution of 1830.
In spite of the fact that Potie was a member so-called “1 - go International“ - the organization created by Marx and Engels for the views it carried itself(himself) to anarchists. But at that time any global contradictions between anarchists and Marxists were not yet - all considered themselves as communists and cooperated.
It is known that the Commune of Paris was cruelly suppressed, Potie together with other activists was outlawed and disappeared from prosecutions. However defeat of the Commune did not break its spirit, and the same year, in an underground, Eugene writes the poem “International“ where approves inevitable death of “the old world“.
In 1887 Potie`s friends publish the collection of its verses, and the same year with the collection copy put in a coffin, the poet goes to a final journey. Marx`s daughter is Laura Lafarg - promised the dying Eugene to promote in every possible way distribution of its poetry, and its book really widely disperses among adherents.
Despite the name of the collection “Revolutionary Songs“, on these verses music was not written yet. Consider that the text of “International“ first warmed up on motive of “Marseillaise“. Only in June, 1888 Potie`s text caught sight to the composer - the fan Pierre Degueyter. He just visited the choral circle “Lira of Workers“ and saw that “International“ is magnificent for chorus . Literally in two days Degueyter composed music - terrible, severe, inevitable as the Commodore`s gait. On June 23 the chorus is for the first time ripe “International“, and the song went to the people. In 1892 it becomes the official anthem “2-go International“.
The special love to the song was felt by the leader of Bolsheviks - Vladimir Ilyich Lenin who in the articles pointed more than once to its special, uniting force. He wrote: “To whatever country the conscious worker where the destiny abandoned him got, whatever stranger he felt like without language, without acquaintances, far from the homeland, - it can find to itself(himself) companions and friends on a familiar tune of “International“ .
In 1902 Russian translation of the text of Potie also was published in the Zhizn magazine issued in London. It was published anonymously, but now most of researchers incline that the Russian student - the emigrant Arkady Kots was his author.
In the Russian version the text of the original became more draft and slogan, and the song resembled the anthem more and more.
“Get up, a damnation branded,
the Whole world hungry and slaves!
Boils our reason is ready to conduct the mortal battle revolted with
I. the Whole world of violence we will destroy by
To the basis, and then
We ours, we will build the new world, -
Who was nothing, that will become everything.
... Nobody will give us disposals:
Neither god, nor tsar and not hero.
we Will achieve release
the Own hand“.
B 1905 “International“ wins popularity among revolutionaries and gradually pushes aside “the Working Marseillaise“. Without some special resolutions congresses of the RSDRP Lenin party began to come to an end with execution of “International“ constantly. Sang it and in April, 1917 when met Lenin at the Finnish station, sang and on November 8 when 2 - y congress of Councils declared a victory of revolution and the end of war.
As if by itself “International“ becomes the anthem of the Country of Councils, and it begins to be played every day the repaired chiming clock of Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin. New symphonic arrangement turns “International“ into one of the most powerful and terrible songs to which can compete unless “Sacred war“.
In the text there were only two essential changes: instead of “We will dig up the whole world of violence “ became “to we will destroy “ , and instead of “It is there will be the last and decisive battle“ - “ is our last and decisive battle“ .
“And in Smolny
having spread wide breasts,
of a cover
fireworks of data.
For the first time
- and it will be...
- and it is
our the last...“.
Under this song communists went to battle and to death.
R. Rozhdestvensky “Ballad about immortality“:
“... The moon crept as typhus.
Is lifeless. Severely...
I was reared motive!
I sounded the word!
The commissioner sang the song.
Sang, having chosen the anthem from anthems.
Sang as if it revived.
Sang, having thrown the head.
Sang as if drank wine.
Sang, bragging of health.
“We ours, - it sang, - we but -
the vy world, - rattled, - we will construct!“
When in 1944 the USSR had a new anthem, “International“ remained the anthem of Communist party.
B its sounds were transmitted 1966 to Earth by the first artificial satellite of the Moon.
Of course, Russia borrowed not all revolutionary songs from the West. The most striking example of primordially Russian creativity is well-known “Dubinushka“ ( “Many songs were heard by me in the native land...“ ).
Sources of this national song are lost in darkness of centuries, and initially nothing revolutionary in it was. Popular it became in lips of barge haulers, and those in turn borrowed it from an old country song in which it was talked of a wood korchyovka. “Dubinushka“ is, of course, a tree to which cut roots and “crashed“ (pulled) that it “itself went“ (fell). Such song had to set the necessary rhythm to collective for execution of a hard physical activity.
The motive of a song during all the time practically did not change. But texts existed weight - and almost in all of them “Dubinushka“ turned from a tree into the tool of national punishment. The text of 1865 written by the lawyer of narodovolets of A. Olkhin on the basis of the text of the sea doctor V. Bogdanov became the most popular.
“... And from grandfathers to fathers, from fathers to sons
This song goes by inheritance,
I as will begin to work only nevmoch,
We to a cudgel, as to an infallible remedy.
... But time will come, and the people will wake up,
it Will unbend a hackneyed back,
I in the darling woods on enemies will pick up
More fine and more strong a cudgel.
Oh, a dubinushka, we will fall a cropper!
Oh, green, will go!
Itself will go! we Will cover
! we Will cover
From musical executions by the most popular and exemplary. Its rolling voice as well as possible approached “Dubinushka“. On memoirs of the singer of the prime minister of a song took place in Kiev in April, 1906 when it gave a free concert for workers. Workers asked it to execute “Varshavyanka“ or “International“, but Shalyapin then did not know these songs yet and offered “Dubinushka“.
“- Hey, a dubinushka, we will fall a cropper, - picked up 5000 voices, and I as during the Easter at matins, separated from the earth. I do not know what sounded in this song - revolution or an ardent appeal to cheerfulness, glorification of work, human happiness and freedom. I do not know. I in ecstasy only sang and that follows it - paradise or hell, - I also did not think. So from a nest the mighty, strong white bird takes off and flies highly for clouds. Of course, all cudgels which rise “on misters and boyars“ - I did not hold them in hand in direct, figuratively. And I wished the end of oppression, and I loved freedom and then as I love now“.
also: “A student`s dubinushka“ ( “Many songs were heard by me in Butyrsky prison...“ ) and even “Mashinushka“ (madly popular in 1905, and then forgotten).
Already in Soviet period Boris Bolotovsky in stay by the student thought up on motive of “Dubinushka“ the comic “Anthem of a fizfak of MSU“ which became then traditional for this university. Are known as well the modern musical processings of “Dubinushka“ made by the DECEMBER and SUNSHOWER groups.
On it so far all. I will already concern other revolutionary songs in the following, final article.