Songs of revolutions. How patriotic “Marseillaise“ became revolutionary and working?
Revolution are not just revolt, not just overflowed bowl of national patience and abscess not just of the collected contradictions which is opened with painful surgical intervention. The real revolution is that social explosion after which the world does not remain the same any more, and human history takes a step to the novel horizons.
Heroic pathos and aspiration to new perfectly display also great revolutionary songs. The majority of them became really national works which are constantly changing and existing in tens of options - sometimes strongly left an initial plan. I will also tell about several sign revolutionary songs in a cycle of articles.
“As during a storm dozen of loaded barges,
Float, rumbling, the Marseilles marshal.“
(Century. Mayakovsky) the First great revolution - French - presented
to the world and the first great revolutionary song. Though it has a specific author, it is possible to claim that “Marseillaise“ was written by history.
However, originally the song was called absolutely in a different way because was born not in Marseille at all, and in Strasbourg. Exactly there in April, 1792 the Northern Rhine army gathered to fight back the troops of Austria and Prussia menacing to the young French republic.
The mayor of Strasbourg is Frederik Dietrich - decided that not bad to write the inspiring fighting song for the Rhine army. With this offer he addressed the captain Claude Joseph Rouge de Lil who in time, free from building of fortifications, was fond of playing music.
Air was simply impregnated with patriotic sentiments around, and Ruzhe de Lil was so inspired by them that for one night on the poster with appeals of Jacobeans ( “To the weapon, citizens! The fatherland is in danger! Let the crowned despots tremble! Let`s be free people to the last gasp and we will direct all our aspirations to the benefit of all mankind!“ ) writes the only brilliant song.
S. Zweig “Genius of one night“: “For only one night the captain is fated to
... to become the brother immortal: the first two lines of a song made of ready phrases, of the slogans obtained on the street and in newspapers give an impetus of creative thought, and there is a stanza which words are so eternal also neprekhodyashch, as well as a melody:
Forward, shoulder to shoulder walking!
Is sacred to the Homeland love.
Forward, freedom expensive,
Animate us again and again“.
the song was unpacked Next day, but it did not cause any special stir.
Its rebirth occurred already in the south of France - in Marseille. There too the militia for protection of the Fatherland, and gathered on a farewell banquet one of volunteers - the medical student Francois - sang the song which madly was pleasant to all though nobody knew her author. The song was printed out right there, and soon under its vigorous fighting motive groups of residents of Marseilles walked on streets of Paris. Soon “the Marseilles song“ - “Marseillaise“ - all capital sang already. And on August 10, 1792 the French troops with “Marseillaise“ on lips took storm the royal Tuileries palace.
Soon learned about the true author of the song, and his glory was so close if Ruzhe de Lil not... refused to take the oath to the republic and did not run away. On the political views it always inclined to the monarchy, but also in it was inconsistent. In 1802 he all - swore to the republic, and after Napoleon`s defeat tried to win a favor of Louis XVIII who came back on a throne.
In spite of the fact that the rank did not bring the author of “Marseillaise“ of special bonuses de Lilia (he died in poverty), it few times rescued it from a guillotine (what you will not tell about “customer“ of a song - the baron Dietrich whom revolutionaries executed). Still! In July, 1795 the deputy of Convention Jean Delri declared: “... I offer that forever the nice anthem of residents of Marseilles was entirely entered in today`s minutes and that the military committee gave the order on performance of this anthem national guard... I offer that the name of the author of the anthem of residents of Marseilles, Rouge de Lilia, with honor was entered in the protocol “.
As a result in spite of the fact that initially “Marseillaise“ expressed generally patriotic feelings, it began to contact revolution indissolubly. The song sounded on barricades of July revolution of 1830 and at the time of the Commune of Paris of 1871. It constantly was forbidden, again resolved, and even tried “to be cleared“ of a revolutionary spirit. So at the beginning of Franco - Prussian war its text was changed under topic of the day: “We march, we march on coast of Rhine to break Prussians“ .
As a result of the power everything is did not resist “survivability“ of a song, and in 1879 “Marseillaise“ was finally declared the national anthem of the French republic which it is to this day (an exception - the period of the profascist Vichy mode).
However, concerning such anthem there were also doubts - whether not too aggressively and militaristic it sounds? And also - how to sing the revolutionary song at the international ceremonies where there are monarchs of other countries? Speak, one king on a question - whether he should take off a hat during this song - got out, having joked: “Each king has to rejoice that “Marseillaise“ takes off at him only a hat, but not the head“ .
When you listen to Russian-speaking option of “Marseillaise“, questions of degree of its revolutionism do not arise. However, there was this option late enough because first “the Marseilles song“ was sung by the Russian noblemen for whom French was that the second is called “native“. In 1891 “Marseillaise“ was even publicly executed in the presence of Alexander III (during stay reigning in Kronstadt on one of the French battle ships).
That Russian text which well is known to all was written in 1875 by the revolutionary and the participant of the Commune of Paris - Pyotr Lavrov. From the French original in it remained a little - but revolutionary appeals were expressed quite clearly:
“Let`s renounce the old world! we Will shake off with
its ashes from our legs!
are hostile to us golden idols;
Is hated to us an imperial hall!
... Also the time of freedom will come,
Will disappear lie, will disappear angrily forever,
I will merge in common people
In a free kingdom of sacred work“.
also music Changed. It became simpler and more strict. This option received the name of “the Working Marseillaise“ and widely sounded during revolution of 1905. Here is how the eyewitness wrote about execution of two Russian revolutionaries in 1906: “They sang
six minutes. At this time to soldiers there was something unusual. On the first team “pl!“ the shot did not follow. On the second - shot at legs so bullets got stuck in the earth... During singing of “Marseillaise“ many soldiers sobbed».
After February revolution of 1917. The provisional government made “Marseillaise“ a national anthem. Perhaps, this tradition would remain also after October revolution if “Marseillaise“ did not have a worthy rival about whom I will tell next time.