Ruthenium is called in honor of Russia? We Will remember an origin of names of chemical elements names of chemical elements
. Eight of them - gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, tin, mercury and sulfur - are known since prehistoric times and then received the names.
of the Name of the elements open in XVII, 18th and 19th centuries, with rare exception (in Russian - hydrogen, oxygen, silicon, antimony and carbon), have one language basis in the European languages. In the XX century of the name with the general basis are accepted also by many Asian languages, become universal.
Names of chemical elements are formed according to several principles:
1) on characteristic properties (nitrogen - impracticable, actinium - active, argon - not active, astatine - unstable, barium - heavy, bromine - fetid, hydrogen - giving rise water, iodine - violet, iridium - iridescent, oxygen - a component of acids, krypton - hidden, xenon - alien, molybdenum - capable to write on paper (like lead), neon - new, osmium - odorous, platinum - similar to silver, radium, radon - radiating, rhodium - pink, rubidium - it is dark - red, thallium - green, technetium - artificial, carbon - the giving rise coal, phosphorus - shining, fluorine - destructive, chlorine - it is yellow - green, it is lame - color, caesium - nebesno - blue);
2) on a natural source (aluminum - from the Latin name of alum, beryllium - on a mineral beryl, pine forest - on a drill mineral, tungsten (in English “òàíãñòåí“) - on the mineral of the same name, cadmium - according to the name of zinc ore, potassium and calcium - from the Arab name of ashes, silicon - from the Ancient Greek word kremnos - “rock“, lities - from the Greek word lithos - “stone“, nickel - according to the name of a mineral, antimony - from the Turkish name of powder for blackening of eyebrows, zirconium - on a mineral zircon);
3) on names of ancient gods and heroes of myths or according to names of heavenly objects (vanadium, helium, neptunium, niobium, palladium, plutonium, promethium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, the titan, thorium, thulium, uranium, cerium); the name “cobalt“ comes from an ancient name of an evil ghost of miners and metallurgists - a kobold;
4) according to the name of the continent, country, city, district, river (americium - America, europium - Europe, germaniye - Germany, polonium - Poland, ruthenium - Russia , frantion - France, rhenium - the river Rein; here belong: berkelium, gallium, hafnium, holmium, ytterbium, yttrium, kaliforny, lutetium, scandium, strontium, terbium, erbium).
According to the first principle as believe, bismuth, in translation from Old German “the white weight“, and also indiya - from the name of indigo dye is called. This principle was introduced with discovery of phosphorus in 1669 for the first time.
The second and third principles of formation of names appeared approximately only in century after the first, with discovery of nickel, tungsten, and then tellurium and uranium.
The fourth way of the name is obliged by the emergence to discovery in 1794 of yttrium. The greatest number of such names is connected with Sweden where 20 elements were open. Only by name the town Itterbyu about which in 1788 the mineral was found bastnezit, four elements are called: yttrium, ytterbium, terbium and erbium. Here it is necessary to add holmium - its name comes from the Latin name of Stockholm, and the scandium which received the name in honor of Scandinavia.
In 1944 new chemical element - curium - the first among elements was called in honor of scientists - Pierre Curie and Maria Sklodovskaya - Curie. Since then all new chemical elements, except promethium, began to receive the names only according to two latest principles - geographical and nominal. By name the town of Berkeley, the suburb San - Frantsisko, with his radiation laboratory of a name E. O. Lawrence, and also staff where it is located San - Frantsisko, are called synthesized in 1949 and 1950 berkelium and kaliforniya.
Names of outstanding physicists were immortalized in the names “einsteinium“ (it is received artificially in 1952) “fermium“ (1953), “mendelevium“ (1955). Recently the names of new elements which were announced by the president of the International union of theoretical and applied chemistry (IUPAC) Tatsumi Katsuyuki are told. The element with number 114 received the name of “fleroviya“ (in honor of Laboratory of nuclear reactions of Flerov), 116 - y the element is called “livermoriya“ now (in honor of Livermorsky national laboratory). Chemical symbols of the new elements which took from now on the place in Mendeleyev`s table - of Fl and of Lv .
Names were offered by the research teams first which received a new element and managed to show his chemical identity.
Independently there is a technetium . The name reflects artificial receiving this element: minute quantities of technetium were synthesized in 1936 at radiation of molybdenum in a cyclotron by deuterium kernels. On - it is Greek “òåõíåòîñ“ and means “artificial“.