Formation of a correct posture and prevention of flat-footedness
Formation of a correct posture important aspect of strengthening of health and harmonious physical development of the child.
A bearing habitual, easy position of a body of the person during standing, sitting and in the movement. At a good bearing of a body of a muscle which hold a backbone in the correct situation, moderately intense the head and a trunk remain exactly, shoulders at one level and are taken a little away back, a back direct, the belt is tightened, legs in knee joints straight lines.
At children of preschool age the bearing is not created finally yet. As specifies a number of scientists (Yu. A. Arkin, B. V. Anisimova, V. G. Shtefko, etc.) ., Physiological bends of a backbone at children are formed to six - seven years. The structure of a bone tissue of vertebras is not finished yet, the backbone is very elastic. Therefore under adverse environmental conditions there can be various violations of a bearing which are characterized by the following signs: the head is hung, the back is bent, shoulders are pushed forward etc. that in the future can lead to a backbone curvature. For these reasons of identification of initial forms of violations of a bearing and their prevention effective at preschool age.
Prevention of measures of the prevention of violation of a bearing in preschool institution has to be carried out in two directions: creation of necessary hygienic conditions (the systematic airing of the room, optimum lighting, convenient furniture corresponding to growth of children, strict observance of a day regimen etc.) and carrying out purposeful educational work, in this case is decisive factor. Carrying out at the high methodical level of exercises, morning exercises, outdoor games, walks during which preschool children actively move sports minutes and the correcting gymnastics after a dream allows to solve this problem successfully.
An extent of all preschool age of children it is necessary to teach to sit correctly on a chair at a table, to stand and go, observing a good bearing, to sleep in an appropriate pose etc.
Training preschool children it is correct to sit at a table, before them put the following requirements: to hold the head vertically or a little inclined forward, shoulders symmetrically in the horizontal plane and parallel to the table edge; elbows freely are placed on a table, a trunk vertical, legs in coxofemoral and knee joints at right angle, feet completely lean on a floor. The back has to touch a chair back.
Distance from a table to eyes of not less ZO - 35 cm. Such pose allows to unload several a backbone, without distorting it.
During food and occupations it is impossible to assume that children, sitting at a table, leaned on it a breast, to lower an elbow down, returned a trunk sideways to the table edge, hilled under themselves one or both legs, hung the head on one shoulder.
Choosing furniture for preschool children, are guided by the following recommendations: chair seat height over a floor has to equal to length of a shin of the child taking into account a foot and a heel of footwear. If a seat too high, legs do not get a floor and position of a body becomes less steady. If a seat low, the child turns in legs under it or puts aside them aside. All this leads to violation of correctness of landing and distorts a bearing.
That the child sat conveniently and strongly, depth of a seat of a chair has to equal two third lengths of a hip, and width to exceed basin width on 10 cm. The back of a chair has to reach bottom edge of shovels.
Artificial or natural light always has to fall on a workplace to the left of the child.
Preventing violation of a bearing, it is necessary to watch also the child`s pose during a dream. The soft bed, a high pillow, a habit to sleep on same to the party can lead to a lateral curvature of a backbone, and a habit to sleep “kalachiky“ - before formation of a round back.
In many preschool institutions children sleep on a folding bed or on beds with a grid that very much caves in under body weight. At sleeps on such beds, especially on the party, shovels are displaced, the top edges in a chest cavity are squeezed, the backbone is bent. Over time it can cause permanent, irreversible violations of a bearing. For children of preschool age the bed on boards with an equal firm mattress is recommended, it is better hair or a sea grass and with one flat pillow.
Children should accustom to be filled up on a back, holding hands over a blanket. It is physically possible to allow to sleep well developed on one side, only not on one. And to watch that the child did not tighten a leg to a stomach, it was not bent by a kalachik, did not become covered by a blanket with the head.
After a day dream it is useful to execute for prevention of violation of a bearing the correcting exercises strengthening muscles - razgibatel of a back, stomach, expand a thorax and pull together shovels.
The complex of the correcting gymnastics consists of 3 - 4 exercises which are carried out right after a dream (is more often in a bedroom). It begins with a simultaneous or serial raising of hands up, their cultivation in the parties and a trunk deflection in a waist. Then children bend forward and in the parties from different starting positions. Last exercise of a complex; squats on tiptoe, back at the same time surely direct.
In these exercises try to obtain the clearness of movements (especially in the senior groups) because the correct performance their guarantee of harmonious development of preschool children and formation at them a correct posture. When raising hands up children look at them, raise the head and cave in in a waist. When they part hands in the parties or take away back, it is important to fix their attention on that shovels met at this time.
And others execute exercises like inclinations in the parties, turns of a trunk surely symmetrically (in both parties). It promotes uniform strengthening of big groups of muscles of a back, stomach, breast; a peculiar “muscular corset“ of the person, holds a body in the correct situation.
During performance of exercises of preschool children learn to breathe correctly. Deep breath regulates blood circulation processes, promotes increase in vital capacity of lungs, excursion of a thorax, mobility of costal arches, strengthening of the intercostal muscles supporting a backbone in vertical position. All exercises are carried out at slow and average speed. Children of younger groups repeat them 6 - 8 times 8 - 10 times are more senior.
In many preschool institutions of our republic right after a day dream children carry out a set of exercises of morning exercises (without any changes) in a gymnasium. It is real for two - three groups. Such measure completely is repaid. Studying of this experience demonstrates positive shifts in formation of a correct posture of preschool children of different age groups.
During the day at preschool children always more loadings have muscles - sgibatel. The child often is in the bent situation: plays in sand, draws a stick on the earth etc. Therefore during walks the thicket should hold outdoor games with use of the exercises strengthening group of muscles - razgibatel. For example, “Loaf“, “Get a subject“, “Butterfly“, “A bear and bees“ and other games with lasagnas on wall bars, small fences etc.
For prevention of violations of a bearing it is important to organize correctly morning exercises and classes in physical culture. Carrying out them, the tutor has to consider features of muscular system of preschool children, a weak tone of muscles - razgibatel to comparison with muscles - sgibatel. Therefore in morning exercises and preparatory part of occupations it is necessary to apply various it is general the developing exercises strengthening muscles of a back, a stomach, the top humeral belt etc. From them those which are carried out from a starting position are especially useful lying on a back. Here the area of a support increases, the backbone unloads, many groups of muscles relax and are well supplied with blood. Exercises in a prone position on a back with various movements of legs (serial and their simultaneous raising, rotary motions the legs bent in knees, as when driving the bicycle etc.) effectively influence strengthening of muscles of an abdominal tension that, in turn, promotes formation of a correct posture.
Training children of all age groups of the main movements, it is necessary to consider close interrelation of processes of formation of skills in these movements with education of a correct posture.
Throughout preschool age at the child it has to be created stable skill of walking and run which provides the correct position of a body during performance of these movements. However monotonous marching to which often resort on occupations and during morning exercises does not provide it.
At first children it is necessary to learn to stand and go correctly on the place. The child first of all has to acquire how it is necessary to stand correctly: to hold the head directly, the straight line case, a belt is tightened, feet of legs are parallel and it is the share uniform load from body weight of each of them. Marking time, children also have to keep the correct pose, highly raise knees and swing vigorously hands.
In the groups, senior and preparatory to school, to develop feeling which has to be position of a trunk and head during walking, recommend to apply the following exercises: walking with freight on the head (a sack weighing 500 - 700 g), with a gymnastic stick behind a back (a stick in elbow joints it is horizontal to a floor), walking on the limited area with a perestupaniye through objects etc. Carrying out these movements, the trunk is held exactly, the head is not hung.
During run it is necessary to remind constantly preschool children that they vigorously took away elbows back, correctly held the head and a trunk (the trunk is a little inclined forward, the head is not hung).
Training children to Throw objects on range and into the purpose (balls, sacks with sand), try to obtain performance of these movements by both the right, and left hand. Most of children throws generally strong hand (usually right). It gives asymmetric development of muscles of a trunk that has an adverse effect on a bearing.
On formation of a bearing the great influence is exerted by a statics - dynamic function of foot. Even little change of its form can become the deformation reason, violation of the correct provision of a basin, a backbone and, as a result, - pathological postural defects.
As formation of a skeleton does not come to an end even at school age, is frequent at the children who are especially poorly physically developed flat-footedness is observed static. Insufficient development myshechno - the copular device or its easing as a result of transfer of infectious diseases gradually cause change of the bone arch. Foot is flattened and, is disregarded, is not corrected.
Scientific researches (E. I. Yankelevich, G. M. Krakovvyak, A. V. Chagovadze, etc.) . Showed that big elasticity of muscles of a shin and svyazochno - the articulate device of foot at children`s age can cause in preschool children the reverse phenomena flattening of foot. Any violation of development of foot, flattening its arches harmfully influences basic ability of extremities, walking, a bearing, the child is tired quicker, the health and working capacity is broken. Ploskostopy children during walking very much stamp legs, their gait intense and clumsy. According to scientists (R. R. Vredena, M. I. Kuslik, P. K. Netkolayev, etc.) ., Flat-footedness at adults is formed owing to tendency to it at children`s age when were absent prevention and timely treatment is necessary.
Flat foot is characterized by lowering of its longitudinal or cross arch. At considerable deformation all foot concerns a basic surface. Often flat-footedness is followed by a thumb deviation outside. However it is necessary to remember also the fact that on a sole of the child fatty tissue which fills its arches is very developed, and therefore it is possible to be mistaken sometimes, examining foot of the kid.
Rather objective and simple method of inspection of a condition of the arch of foot is the plantografiya (a print of foot of the child on a sheet of paper after wetting by its water tinted by potassium permanganate). If there is no flat-footedness, on a foot print under the internal arch paper remains pure. At flat-footedness the internal part of a print turns out painted.
For prevention and correction of flat-footedness use various exercises: bending of feet, turns of socks inside and cultivation of legs, walking on tiptoe and on a gymnastic stick (the rope put on a floor); walking on the internal and external parties of foot, squat on tiptoe and various jumps; rise on socks; rollings of a ball foot, capture by toes of objects (cubes, sticks etc.) on a floor, etc.
The tutor has to carry out these exercises daily with children who have the flattened foot. Houses preschool children carry out them under supervision of parents.
In the summer physical exercises which are carried out under natural conditions are very useful: walking barefoot on friable soil or sand, on a log, etc. They promote development of the arch of foot.
Exercises for prevention of flat-footedness are surely carried out to time of morning exercises and occupations on physical culture in introductory part. Children go on tiptoe and heels, highly raising hips and delaying socks as “horse“, or on outer side of foot as “a clumsy bear“, run on tiptoe, etc.
On classes in physical culture and during morning exercises children have to be in slippers with a soft sole (Czeches) or barefoot (in the hall and in the summer on the platform). Under such condition at a lasagna on wall bars (short flight of stairs), walking on a rope sheaves and muscles oporno - the motive device become stronger better and excavation of foot increases. Besides in slippers on a firm sole children cannot well make a start, for example, from a sock during long jumps and height from running start, and also it is correct to land.
Within a year in all age groups it is necessary to carry out douche of legs by cool water (according to the temperature norms specified in the program) and grinding of feet a towel. Such procedure is very useful not only to an organism hardening, but also to the correct formation of the arch of foot of the child. It increases blood circulation and promotes improvement of blood supply and an innervation of foot.
Children who have a tendency to flat-footedness (the flattened foot, weak svyazochno - the muscular device) are recommended to carry instep supports; orthopedic plates from soft material.
Formation of a correct posture and prevention of flat-footedness at preschool children can be carried out successfully only on condition of unity of requirements of kindergarten and a family. The correct organization of life of children in preschool institution and in a family, observance of the main hygienic requirements (a day regimen, food, a dream, the correct selection of furniture, etc.)., the Corresponding technique of carrying out physical exercises - all this will promote formation of a correct posture at children of preschool age.