What politician the first received Nobel Peace Prize?
Last Nobel week again surprised with the results. The award for strengthening of the world between the people in 2012 is handed to the European Union. It is no more sense in this rewarding, than in rewarding of the U.S. President just for the fact that he is a good guy.
The European Union initially was big and therefore the confused bureaucratic organization. Its efforts in peacekeeping activity more than are disputable.
Some more the same “brilliant“ rewardings, and that will become obvious to all, as now understand many. Nobel Peace Prize turned into an impudent bribe. And the fine dream of optimists of the end 19 - go - the beginnings 20 - go that the will and efforts of one person will be able to change the world to the best was centuries a utopia.
However, members of the Norwegian Nobel committee handing this award since 1901 understood utopianism of this idea long ago. The first five years they still awarded an award for peacekeeping activity to individuals, “made most of all for the sake of a brotherhood between the people, for dissolution or reduction of field armies“ . So it was specified in A. Nobel`s will. It was supposed that heads of states have to be peacekeepers, so to speak, “on a position“.
But in 1906 the award was awarded to the U.S. President Theodor Roosevelt (Theodore Roosevelt) (1858-1919) who not only was the first head of state who got Nobel`s award for peacekeeping activity but also the first American awarded the Nobel Prize.
Ruzvelta - a surname of the Dutch origin that is visible even on its writing. Americans also say it on Dutch manners: “Ðîçåâåëüò“ (“field of roses“). In Russia other president Roosevelt, Franklin Delano is better known. He is a distant relative of Theodor. Besides, Franklin`s wife - Eleonora - had to Theodor Roosevelt the niece. Such here domesticity. However, Franklin Roosevelt became U.S. President from democratic party, and Theodor Roosevelt was a strong republican.
He in general was a strong guy though in the childhood fairly was ill. Perhaps, therefore Theodor Roosevelt all life did not lose interest in adventures and showed tremendous activity. In time an americana - the Spanish war in 1898 he was at war in Cuba and served to the colonel. He was the deputy sheriff in Northern Dakota, just when the multicharging revolver, the invention of “the great equalizer“ of Samuel Kolt was the main legislator there. Having become the police chief of the city of New - York, in only two years he made city guards in the true sense of the word efficient.
In 1901 Theodor Roosevelt became vice-the U.S. President. This position at the living president almost means nothing. However in September of the same year the incumbent president of the USA William McKinley was killed, and on September 14 Theodor Roosevelt became a president. At that time - the youngest American president.
The young active president very much suited the young active country. During rule of T. Roosevelt of the USA began to dominate in the Western hemisphere. In 1903 Americans took a zone of the Panama Canal under the control, and the American military builders undertook completion of this infamous unfinished construction.
Being the charismatic leader, Theodor Roosevelt continued to surprise the American people with extravagant acts. He was the first American president who did some flying by plane. On hunting he refused to shoot the bear attached to a tree. “It is not sports, misters“, - as if he told. After a while the legendary bear turned into not less legendary bear cub, into a teddy bear, the best friend of all American children. And a bear cub of it began to call Teddie. In English of “Teddie“ - the same synonym of a teddy bear, as in Russian “Mikhaylo Potapych“ - a synonym of a bear live.
When burst russko - the Japanese war, T. Roosevelt clearly sided with Japan though formally the USA kept a neutrality. For this reason the American president managed to lead the being at war parties to the peace agreement which was concluded in 1905 in the American city of Portsmouth.
Both Russia, and Japan were interested in the end of military operations. Russia wanted to finish war because in the country revolution burst. As the tsar Nicholas II told, “internal welfare is more important, than a victory“. Japan had no resources for continuation of military operations. As a result to the American diplomats, and first of all, personally to the president T. Roosevelt, it was succeeded “to pressurize“ both parties. The contract was signed.
The Russian delegation in Portsmouth was headed by the count S. Yu. Witte. According to the Portsmouth contract to Japan the southern part of the island of Sakhalin departed. Therefore liberal journalists christened Witte “the Semi-Sakhalin count“ (by analogy with “Potemkin - Taurian“). Nickname, apparently, humiliating. But if to ponder, exactly thanks to the hardness of a position of S.Yu. Witte from all “bouquet“ of requirements with which Japan went for negotiations only requirements about annexation of Sakhalin were partially met. Russia did not pay any contributions. Japan received only reimbursement on keeping of the Russian prisoners of war. So count S. Yu. Witte not so much gave to Japan a half of the island how many defended other its half for Russia. Order of Kutuzov to the hero!
As T. Roosevelt repeatedly emphasized that he was engaged in the organization rossiysko - the Japanese peace talks “on its own behalf and on the initiative“, his rewarding with Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 with rewarding of the individual of Theodor Roosevelt, but not president of the powerful state was formal.
T. Roosevelt felt some stretch in the rewarding too. Therefore he did not go to an awards ceremony. And transferred the money received from the Norwegian Nobel committee in 1917 to assistance to the victims of World War I.