Basques and Armenians: Secret pages of European civilization
at the end of the last century the English scientist Edward Spencer Dodzhson absolutely incidentally made very interesting discovery. Being already quite famous baskolog, Dodzhson decided to study, for expansion of own outlook, Armenian also came in Parisian “Ekol spesial“, to a class of the famous philologist - the orientalist August Carier. The result was very unexpected: after only two-month courses Dodzhson noticed that many Armenian words are almost identical to Basque. Dodzhson published the reflections about this lexical coincidence in 1884 in the Euskera magazine (“Basque“) under the intriguing heading “The Basque Words in Armenian“. The list of the parallels noticed by Dodzhson included more than fifty words. And the most curious that found basksko - the Armenian coincidence remained in both languages almost at the level of full mutual understanding, for example:
basks. charms “bad, angry“ - an automated workplace. charms “bad, angry“, basks. anti-“from there“ - an automated workplace. anti-“from there“, basks. ays “wind“ - automated workplace. ays “wind“, basks. “to separate“ zat - an automated workplace. zat “separately“, basks. the place tags - an automated workplace. place tags, basks. Arti “ram“ - an automated workplace. “ram“, etc. of
the Second important opening in the field of ethnolinguistic communications of Basques and Armenians was made by Arti more than a quarter of the century later. In 20 - e years the young Basque philologist of Bernardo Estornes Las, subsequently the largest scientist and the academician, collected the Basque folklore material in the Ropkalsky valley, in east part of the province Navarre. And so, in the village of Isab, almost on the most eastern frontier of Navarre, Estornes Lasa wrote down the local legend that the village of Isab is founded by Armenians who were the first inhabitants of Navarre and ancestors of the Basque people. In the legend it is specified that the leader of the Basque people was called Aytor, he arrived from Armenia with seven sons and in their honor founded seven settlements in Navarre. It is said also that visitors Armenians, ancestors of Basques, knew secret of processing of metal. Subsequently found the ancient manuscript, the historical chronicle which confirms oral legends in archives of the village. It is very remarkable that in Basque the name of Isab is translated as “A trace of ancestors“ and though it can seem absolutely improbable, but the fact remains: in the village of Isab still there is a road which bears a name Erminia. The national tradition connects it with a name Armenia - in honor of the first settlers of Navarre. All this could seem a fruit of imagination of the Basque old men as long time was considered by many researchers, however the science, in particular linguistics and a historiography, and also mythology went into action. It turned out that in Basque Aytor literally means a name of the legendary ancestor of Basques “The comer from Aya“ or “Coming from Aya“ that quite precisely there corresponds to the Armenian design of Aja of Torahs “the Armenian`s grandson“ as it was shown by the famous German scientist Josef Karst. Further searches led to new opening. It turned out that all above-stated facts and coincidence only the top part of an iceberg of the greatest secret of European civilization. As it became clear, the theory of the Armenian origin of the most ancient people of Europe has deep roots in his historical memory and found the reflection in the Basque written sources.
in the XVI-XVII centuries founders of the Basque national historiography Esteban de Garibay, Andres de Possa and Baltasar de Echave considered Armenia as an ancestral home of Basques and tried to prove it on a basis basksko - the Armenian toponymic coincidence, meaning, in particular: Araks (the name of the river in Armenia and in Baskoniya) and a name of the Basque mountain Aralar which was repeatedly compared to the well-known Ararat. Moreover, Andrey de Possa directly claims that Basques are newcomers from Armenia. He even specifies that the city of Tarragona was founded on the Mediterranean coast of Spain by Armenians and in their language the name Tarragona meant “a community of shepherds“. The list of primary sources is filled up by the Spanish historian of the 17th century Gaspar Escolano who in the book about stories of the city of Valencia (1610) writes that after the Flood the patriarch Tubal and his people landed on east coast of Spain and that they talked in Armenian.
Besides Gaspar Escolano with an extraordinary accuracy describes places where, according to the legend, remains of Armenians - the first inhabitants of Spain were buried. Nowadays on those places, generally in the territory of modern Catalonia, churches are located, and it prompts that these points still long since were considered as sacred. Unfortunately, all these data too long remained in darkness of oblivion for the reason that in due time the Basque material was not analysed and estimated in the light of these Armenian sources and Armenian. And when in the twenties this century the German linguist Josef Karst started detailed and comprehensive study basksko - the Armenian theory, somewhat was already late enough. In 1928 the famous German philologist Josef Karst at last published results of the long-term researches, under heading “Alarodiytsa and protobasques“. The book was published in Vienna in French and caused a huge resonance in the scientific world. In this work of Karst presented more than three hundred basksko - the Armenian lexical compliances and a large number of coinciding elements of phonetics and grammar, including systems of inducement, conjugation, etc. On this basis of Karst came to a conclusion that Basque and Armenian are two kinds of one linguistic type which called alarodiysky. Besides purely linguistic material Karst operated also this other sciences, in particular ethnography and anthropology. He one of the first paid attention that anthropologically Basques are armenoida. It should be noted especially the fact that Josef Karst came to the scientific conclusions only on the basis of own researches, without having any information on the previous works about which it was told above. Subsequently Karst wrote some more books where continued justification of the theory basksko - the Armenian ethnolinguistic unity, providing all new data and proofs:
basks. fir-trees “exit“ - an automated workplace. elk “exit“, basks. you etet “if“ - an automated workplace. you etet “if“, basks. “to inherit“ zharauns - an automated workplace. zharanget “to inherit“, basks. muruncha “growl“ - automated workplace. merenchots “growl“, basks. murts “fist“ - an automated workplace. murts “fist“, basks. an orma “wall“ - an automated workplace. orm “wall“, basks. the place tags - an automated workplace. place tags, basks. toil “weak“ - an automated workplace. concealed “weak“, basks. a line “the size, width“ - an automated workplace. the line is “wide“, basks. irurden “third“ - an automated workplace. erorden “third“, basks. astadun “powerful“ - an automated workplace. astatun “strong, resistant“, basks. urt “water-bearing“ - an automated workplace. urt “water-bearing“, basks. to prove astatine - an automated workplace. astatet “to prove“, etc.
On the Armenian Highlands and in Baskoniya there is a huge number of toponymic elements which sometimes reach the level of simple repetition, for example:
of an automated workplace. Ashtarak (the name of the city in Armenia) - basks. Astarak (the settlement in the south of France), an automated workplace. Goris (the city on Hugo - the East of Armenia) - basks. Goris (the settlement in Baskoniya), an automated workplace. The Deba (the river in the north of Armenia) - basks. The Deba (the name of the river in Baskoniya), an automated workplace. Shubriya (the ancient name of the province Sasun) - basks. The Shuberoa (the name of the Basque province in France), an automated workplace. Araks (a name of the known river) - basks. Arakses (the name of the river in Baskoniya), an automated workplace. Aran islands (the name of the district in Armenia) - basks. Aran islands (a widespread toponym in Baskoniya), an automated workplace. Karkar (the name of the district in the Western Armenia) - basks. Karkar (the known toponym in Baskoniya), an automated workplace. Karb (the name of the village in Armenia) - basks. Karbe (a toponym in Baskoniya), an automated workplace. Tsavalk (the settlement in Syunik) - basks. Sabalts (the name of the district in Baskoniya), etc.
Earlier such toponymic coincidence was not of a particular interest to science as similar elements can exist also in other regions. However armyano - the Basque toponymic parallels have important feature - in most cases they are translated equally in both languages, for example:
of an automated workplace. Aran islands “valley“ - basks. Aran islands “valley“, automated workplace. karb “under a stone“ - basks. to a karba “under a stone“, an automated workplace. tsavat “width“ - basks. sabat “width“, etc. of
As it was already noted above, on Basque national the tradition was considered as an ancestral home of Basques Armenia, besides different sources note that the secret of processing of metal, in particular copper and iron was known to newcomers from Armenia. The self-name of Basques euskaldun which comes from a root element eusk, in different dialects having various forms - eusk, usk, to an esk, ask, etc. is in this regard very remarkable. This root as it was shown by us, is etymologically connected with the Armenian word gold wax existing in dialects in various options: claims, veska, ask, uosk, etc. The Armenian word gold wax passed into own name Voskan which literally means “having gold“ and reminds an ethnic name of Basques baskon, in Latin sources recorded as vaskon. It is curious that at the time of the Urartsky (Ararat) kingdom of Hugo - east coast of the lake Wang, that is a cradle of the Armenian people, was called Hubushkiya that “the valley literally means a mustache - k“, that is “the gold valley“ (cf. an automated workplace. hole opium and gold wax). Also it is very remarkable that in early medieval Armenian sources urartsky Hubushkiya, “the valley of usk“ or “the gold valley“, already has other name, namely Ayots a dzor that is meant by “the valley of Armenians“ or “the Armenian valley“. On the other hand, Ushkiani`s mountains on the northeast coast of the lake Urmia are mentioned in urartsky (Ararat) inscriptions: at the time of Strabon Ushkiani`s mountains were already called the Armenian mountains, and in the subsequent Armenian sources they are known as Voskean - “gold“. All these facts allow to draw a conclusion that for our ancestors the concepts “zolotodobyvatel“ and “Armenian“ were synonyms that is confirmed also by the Basque national legends. It is conventional that Basques the most ancient people of Western Europe. In any case, they appeared there long before arrival of Indo-Europeans whose first invasions belong to 1000 B.C. Therefore, by this time the Armenian ethnolinguistic element already existed in Western Europe and subsequently exerted notable impact on development of European civilization.
are present At the Basque national legends strange mythological characters - basayauna which were owners of the wood, - very simple and good-natured beings. They differed in huge physical force, but always gave in to mind. Their body was covered with hair, and they lived separately, far from ordinary people. Similar characters exist in mythology of the different people, but the Basque basayaun - ov have very important distinctive feature: the secret of processing of metal and cultivation of wheat were known to them. It is obvious that during a certain period there was a merge of mythological ideas to historical events. The image of ingenuous forest giants could exist in local mythology even before arrival of the Armenian tribes, however further the newcomers from Armenia who had secret of processing of metal and cultivation of wheat were identified with basayaun - Amy as in those days the people able to melt metal and to grow up grain quite could be considered as supernatural beings. These data are prompted that the Armenian tribes, besides the language, brought to Europe also the major production achievements: processing of metal and cultivation of grain crops. And therefore absolutely not incidentally some agricultural terms almost completely coincide in Basque and Armenian, for example:
basks. ashes “millet“ - an automated workplace. ashes “barley“ basks. arich “oak“ - an automated workplace. arich “oak“, basks. Asya “grow“ - an automated workplace. asn - ate “grow“, basks. inchauz “nut“ - an automated workplace. inkoyz “nut“, basks. an erka “furrow“ - an automated workplace. erk - ate “to plow“, basks. orots “calf“ - an automated workplace. Oroch “lamb“ basks. Arti “ram“ - an automated workplace. Arti “ram“ basks. aynts “goat“ - an automated workplace. ayts “goat“, basks. are “a wild goat“ - an automated workplace. are - N “a wild goat“, basks. ato “herd“ - an automated workplace. from “herd“, basks. matoyn “sour milk“ - an automated workplace. matsun “sour milk“, etc.
Should be added also that, according to archeology, penetration of armenoidny race to the Iberian Peninsula belongs to the middle of the third millennium B.C. By this time there also the first monuments of megalytic architecture appear.
on Vagan Sargsyan`s materials,
selection of photos - Hayasa.