Rus Articles Journal

What way there passed the mankind from rock paintings to the computer?

Sand, the earth and a stone - natural materials on which primitive people began to fix the life. The papyrus, parchment, paper - on them were displayed not only events, but also human thoughts and the accumulated knowledge. The computer century opened before us unprecedented opportunities. And what will be farther?

When I read the fantastic story narrating about implantation of the computer system connected with a universal information field in a human brain to me became terrible. Really the mankind will reach such stage? Or all - will manage to come to space open spaces and to expand the vital space, remaining at the same time the person....

Somehow I asked the five-year-old granddaughter, as if she drew if paper and pencils suddenly disappeared. Without reflecting, she answered:
- On the earth a stick.

Possibly each of us had to draw something, to draw on sand or on the earth. Remember the feelings - they unconsciously remained with us: frays touches to the earth, the universe, history. Sand and the earth played a role of the first data carriers, but they were extremely short-lived.

During era of a paleolith of people began to use a stone and walls of caves for display of the life - rock paintings so appeared.

Many centuries later in different parts of the world people learned to use more convenient natural materials for creation of data carriers.

The invention of clay tablets was big achievement of a Sumer civilization (the territory of present Iraq). They became a basis of the first libraries. The most known library of the Assyrian tsar Ashpurbanipam living in the seventh century B.C. contained about three thousand cuneiform plates.

Ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used metal and bone plates for the letter. And in Ancient Rome thought up simpler material in use over time - wax plates.

The big role in development of writing belongs to plants. About five thousand years ago Egyptians learned to make writing material of a core of long leafless stalks of the papyrus. Throughout thirty centuries people used the papyrus for the letter. The pieces of the papyrus which are stuck together in tapes represented rolls of several tens meters. Many poetic, historical and scientific manuscripts reached us thanks to these rolls.

In Ancient Russia as material for the letter served birch bark. On birch bark wrote with bone or metal sticks. The most ancient, the birchbark manuscripts which remained up to now are made in the eleventh century.

In the second century B.C. in China invented paper, did it of stalks of a bamboo and a bass of a mulberry. The secret of production was kept the most strict secret. Europe this technology reached only in the eleventh century, and Russia - in the sixteenth.

A lot of various raw materials were tried until from the middle of the nineteenth century paper began to be made of wood. Perhaps, to people this idea was prompted by wasps who build the “paper“ nests of the smallest pieces of trees. The fir-tree giving the longest and thin wood fiber was recognized as the main raw materials.

It is impossible to disregard development of writing on the American continent. Aboriginals of South America invented the nodular letter - a pile, representing difficult rope textures and knots.

Threads made of wool of alpacas and lamas or of cotton. In a pile could be from several hanging-down threads to two thousand. Threads of various coloring were applied, the thread could be one - two - and three-colored, and all 24 colors were used. Colors meant groups of objects. For example,

yellow - gold, corn;
black - time;
red - war;
white - silver, the world;
violet - the chief;
green - the opponent, a gain.

The pile was used for transmission of messages, for fixing of taxes, laws and for other data. About five thousand years are the most ancient to kip.

To northern Indians for saving information served vampuma - threads with the cylindrical beads strung on them which made of sinks of a certain species of mollusks. Vampuma also embroidered with beads on buckskin strips.

Information was transferred by color of these peculiar beads. Red meant war, white - the world, happiness, black - threat. The combination of colors made symbolical drawings. For example, the red axe on a black background reported about declaration of war, and a skreshcheniye of hands on white - the peace treaty.

By means of the correct geometrical ornaments wrote down historical events. Vampuma carried out an exclusive role in life of northern Indians: they served as ornament, writing and money.

At the end of the nineteenth - the beginning of the twentieth of centuries learned to create data carriers on essentially new technologies. There were phonograph records, documentary photographs, films with movies... The 20th century introduced tape recordings, then computer diskettes and HDD - disks, streamers, the 21st century - digital records, optical laser a compact - disks - CD, then DVD and Blu - ray, SSD - disks, flash - cards, USB - stores...

And the papers which are actively forced out more capacious and rational are still live and loved...