Justice in Russia. Who was the first convict in Russia?
Always everything begins with something concrete and certain. And there is always someone the first, the list of the people who underwent any changes of life own and public standing in a chain of the followers and beginning.
Siberia arose as geographical concept at Ivan the Terrible. And since March 12, 1582 there was an additional decree to the Code of laws of 1550 in which the reference for the first time began to be called as an independent measure of punishment. It should be noted that people of a notable origin - disgraced grandees and courtiers were the first exiled, and after them Sagittariuses, dissenters, participants of different revolts went.
The bell from Uglich to which under sentence of court pulled out language chopped off an ear was one of the first exiled who got to Siberia for a political fault and flogged lashes. This bell was guilty that it the ring convoked the people in May, 1581 after killed the younger son Ivan the Terrible, the tsarevitch Dmitry. The bell on ropes was dragged behind party of exiled uglichan which rebelled on its draft ring.
From 1593 to 1645 to Siberia sent one and a half thousand “thieves“ - so called first all people who committed political and criminal crimes. Improvement of “Criminal code“ of Russia led also to changes of results of legislative process when at the end of the 17th century there was an establishment of a Siberian exile as one of punishment forms. It, according to the government, showed humanity to convicts.
The act cancelled cruel corporal punishments which often spoiled the person, but at the slightest fault of offenders together with families could send to Siberia. The concept of the high or political treason is entered by the Cathedral code 1639 - 1649 and means attempt at the tsar, at his power and health, at state bodies, malignant gossip against the imperial yard.
The tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich issued decrees against the buffoons who are cruelly pursued for the malignant gossip in relation to the imperial yard three times. Buffoons were recommended to be punished whips and batoga, and also “to banish to the ukrayny cities for disgrace“. In the beginning 1720 - x years the legal terms “state fault“ and “state criminal“ appear.
The Siberian kandalny path nicknamed in the people of “Vladimirk“ began to be built in 1735, on this way of convicts sent into exile and on penal servitude to Siberia. On a path and exiled with half the shaved heads went a never-ending chain unbearable and rattled chains and shackles. And they were voluntarily followed by their families - wives and juvenile children, testing all weight of a long wearisome way.
Since the 18th century after carrying out church reform among banished to Siberia noticeable part “sufferers for belief“ began to make. Catherine II the special manifesto invited dissenters to return from Poland to Russia and suggested to move on favorable terms to Siberia. Mass resettlement of Old Believers to Siberia, mainly for Baikal where they made the first country farms began.
In the second half of the 18th century to Siberia began to banish skopts, members of cruel religious sect, for belonging to this sect them also deprived of the rights and a state. Skoptsa saw rescue of soul in “fight against flesh“ and therefore subjected themselves - men and women - to an oskopleniye. They lived “ships“, arranged wild, insanely, dancings to exhaust forces and to weaken “evil absurd“.
The founder of sect of skopts Kondraty Selivanov for the fact that had courage to offer “it“ to the emperor Pavel was put in a madhouse. Influence of skopts got by inheritance rather from Byzantium when in ancient centuries skopets made the most part of dignitaries in imperial palaces.
At the end of the 19th century to Siberia banished dukhobor.
Penal servitude, as well as exile is the state tool of justice. In Russia it appeared during reign of Peter I in the form of forced labor on rowing vessels. The historian A. Nechvolodov has an explanation that “penal servitude“ is a rowing vessel on which as oarsmen served the slaves chained to guns or oars. Then in the 18th century convicts on penal servitude were forced to works in fortresses, at state plants and mines.
Thanks to the gloomy figure of Biron looming behind the back of the empress Anna Ioannovna through the window to Europe which is “cut through“ by Peter I like Gogol vampires and netopyryam foreign businessmen got into Russia. Foreigners began to buy up actively indivisible earlier princely ancestral lands and estates, and simple, as they say, Russian person a stream went to Siberia - to penal servitude, in work at the melting plants created by foreign guests and to extract ore in mines.
Development of metallurgy in Russia demanded creation of unbearable conditions at the opened mines and melting plants. In Transbaikalia penal servitude was on mines of the Nerchinsk mountain district. The first convict it would be possible to call the archpriest Habakkuk who arrived under the supervision of the Yenisei voivode Afanasy Pashkov for arrangement of the Nerchinsk jail here.
The valley of the river of the Penalty in which more than fifty years Nerchinsk penal servitude concentrated became known on gold since 1832. And at the end of 1827 the Decembrists condemned on a hard labor which conditions of keeping were others, than keeping of other prisoners began to arrive to the Chita jail. It can be assumed from such funny case when one of Decembrists - Dmitry Zavalishin - for “bad behavior“ was sent to Moscow from Chita where it left penal servitude.
Since 1869 convicts on penal servitude were located in specially arranged unbearable prisons with a high security where no works were performed. Since 1875 parts of convicts on penal servitude referred to the island of Sakhalin (in 1905, with loss of a half of Sakhalin, the reference was stopped there). In the second half of the 19th century unprofitableness of a hard labor in relation to the work mechanized became obvious.