What structure of environmental monitoring?
Structure of environmental monitoring consist of the systems having a certain classification now. It is caused by the tasks facing the researcher, levels of the organization and character of environments behind which supervision are made.
According to regularities of distribution of the polluting substances allocate the following levels of monitoring:
- local level: studying of strong influences of local scale;
- the regional level where there is a migration and transformation of the polluting substances, is noted joint action of various factors typical for region economy;
- the global level which is carried out on the basis of biospheric reserves where any economic activity is forbidden.
According to levels distinguish three types of environmental monitoring.
Local monitoring which still call impaktny , is directed to control of level of content of those polluting substances which are thrown out by the concrete enterprise. It controls first of all environments, the most sensitive to this polluting substance in actual practice. At the same time surely define a source and extent of pollution of environments.
Regional monitoring is directed to an assessment of anthropogenous influence on a region state of environment. It represents supervision over how people use environment in the course of economic activity.
Regional systems of environmental monitoring represent a basis of environmental monitoring. The main goal of regional monitoring consists in supplying with information on environment of the people making decisions for implementation of nature protection actions. Researches of regional monitoring are concentrated on control of pollution in places of strong anthropogenous loading. They include control of concentration of the polluting substances in the atmosphere, surface and underground water, the soil and a biota.
Global monitoring is a system of supervision over all-planetary distribution of the polluting substances which happens due to distant transfer. In 1974 in Nairobi (Kenya) board of governors of the Program of the UN for problems of environment of YuNEP made the decision on creation of “Global system of monitoring of environment“ ( of GSMOS ). Need creation of monitoring of pollution of environment and the factors of influence responsible for this process was recognized as a paramount task.
A subsystem of global monitoring is background monitoring , or as it is called still, biospheric. This type of monitoring is carried out in the reserves which received the status of biospheric reserves from UNESCO.
Background monitoring is usually carried out within the programs “Global System Monitoring of Environment“, the international program “Supervision over the Planet“, the program of UNESCO “The person and the biosphere“, programs of the UN for YuNEP environment. The main objectives of biospheric monitoring are stated in one of sections of the International program “Person and Biosphere“ and are as follows:
- finding of communication between pollution, functioning of ecosystems, populations or separate organisms;
- definition of indicators and measurements which are necessary for supervision and an assessment of a condition of an ecosystem and the forecast of changes in the future;
- an assessment of speeds of transformation of the polluting substances in an ecosystem;
- establishment of critical values of indicators of environment.
At the moment in the world there are 530 biospheric reserves in 105 countries of the world, including 39 biospheric reserves are in the territory of the Russian Federation: Astrakhan, Barguzin, Voronezh, Caucasian, Baikal, It is central - Lesnoy, etc.
the Obtained information on pollution of environments in biospheric reserves has representative character for an assessment of their background state as observed grounds of stations are located in the areas removed on distance more than 50 km from the cities and large industrial sources of pollution of the atmosphere. In territories of the specified reserves agricultural works are not carried out, the structure of land use within the last 20 years does not change.
Control of pollution at various levels of its carrying out surely has to include geophysical, geochemical and biological monitoring. At the same time geophysical and geochemical monitoring in fact are monitoring of sources of pollution and factors of influence. Generally, the structure of the measured geophysical and geochemical characteristics have to include the parameters necessary for an explanation of sizes of concentration of the polluting substances in separate environments and for research of biogeochemical cycles and a circulation of chemicals.
Biological monitoring is carried out for the purpose of definition and the analysis of reaction (response) of biological systems to anthropogenous influence and estimates of their state.
For bigger efficiency of monitoring of pollution it is necessary to have exact information on the hydrometeorological mode of the region, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of a biological component and on ways of accumulation and migration of chemical pollutants. Possessing such information, it is possible to define easily the optimum number of tests with use of their automated selection, processings and data transmission.
Thus, environmental monitoring is based both on physical and chemical, and on biological materials that allows to use a wide range of receptions and methods at its carrying out.