What is environmental monitoring of environment?
the supervision method - the way of studying of objects which is based on long perception of objects and phenomena of environment since ancient times applied To various needs of practical activities of people. In the 1st century AD Guy Pliny in the work “Natural History“ gave interesting examples of supervision over surrounding environment.
B in Paris took place 1968 conference of UNESCO at which the main points of the Person and Biosphere Program were discussed (Man and Biosphere- MAB ). The MAB program included development of recommendations about the organization of the international program of supervision over changes of environment. Its main task consisted in detection and the prevention of the coming harmful anthropogenous changes in a condition of environment which can do direct or indirect harm to welfare of people.
In 1971 by preparation for the first international conference of the UN on environment (Stockholm, 1972) experts of the commission of Scientific committee on problems of environment the concept “ monitoring of surrounding environment “ was offered. This term is decided to be used “for designation of system of repeated supervision of one and more elements of environment in space and in time with definite purposes and according to in advance prepared program“. The authorship belonged to the member of the commission American scientist R. Mann. The recommendation about creation of Global system of monitoring of environment (Global Environmental Monitoring Systems- GEMS ) was the important solution of the Stockholm conference.
The big merit in development of the concept of monitoring belongs to outstanding Russian scientific Yu. A. To Izrael who suggested “to understand as monitoring only such system of supervision which allows to allocate changes of a condition of the biosphere under the influence of anthropogenous activity“. According to definition, basic elements join in this system:
- supervision over factors of influence and state of environment;
- the forecast of its future state;
- an assessment of its actual and predicted state.
This concept allocates for monitoring function of information support of anthropogenous activity.
According to other Russian researcher I. P. Gerasimov, “object of the general monitoring is the multicomponent set of the natural phenomena subject to diverse natural dynamic changes and experiencing various influences and transformations by her person“. I. P. Gerasimov understood “the system of supervision, control and management of a state of environment which is carried out in various scales, including global“ as monitoring. The “administrative“ concept of monitoring aimed at identification and control of ecological danger, creation of ecologically expedient economy, active international cooperation. Supporters of the “administrative“ concept of monitoring insisted on need of completion of the gap connected with absence in system of monitoring of a control link.
Now such definition is accepted: understand complex system of supervision, an assessment and the forecast of a state of environment as environmental monitoring of environment. This concept means the regular supervision of environments, resources, a plant and animal life which are carried out according to the uniform program. Such approach allows to reveal changes of their state both during natural processes, and under the influence of activity of the person.
the Purpose, tasks and the principles of the organization of environmental monitoring
Main the purpose environmental monitoring consists in creation of the information system allowing to receive authentic data on a state of environment and its changes in physical and biotic components under the influence of natural and anthropogenous factors.
Systems of environmental monitoring are urged to solve following problems :
- collecting primary information, its accumulation, systematization, analysis and formation of a databank;
- processing and data presentation in the form of various tables, schedules, cards;
- improvement and development of methods of obtaining initial information, an assessment of current state of environment and the forecast;
- the analysis of the reasons of observed and probable changes of a state;
- expeditious providing all interested persons with necessary information.
At the same time the assessment of current state of the environment is a basis for adoption of operational decisions in the field of environmental management, and the forecast - for adoption of long-term decisions.
The organization of environmental monitoring is based on three basic principles : complexity, systematicity and commonality. On the basis of these principles process of creation of system of environmental monitoring has to include the following main components:
- choice of objects of monitoring and controlled parameters;
- creation of a network of points of supervision;
- collecting, processing and accumulation of information;
- processing of the obtained information, the analysis and an assessment of an ecological situation;
- use of information and results for making decisions on actions for improvement of an ecological situation.
The structure of system of environmental monitoring consists of four main units: databases, analytical block, information block and control unit of an ecological situation .
Information system of environmental monitoring is a component of a control system of a state of environment as information on the existing state of environment and tendencies of its change are a basis of development of nature protection policy and planning socially - economic development of territories.
What structure and organization of environmental monitoring? About it the speech in the following article will go.