Who invented an internal combustion engine?
Siegfried Markus was the First creator of the automobile motor working at liquid fuel. Emergence of this motor was the beginning of modern automotive industry.
Siegfried Markus was born in the Jewish family in 1831 in Germany. 17 - he already worked as the summer young man in Berlin at laying of communications of telecommunication, then long time worked the mechanic in the German electric company “Siemens Und Halsk“ in Berlin.
Markus well studied history of transport equipment. All this time he dreamed to construct the self-moving crew.
Meanwhile the policy interfered with Markus`s destiny - war between Germany and France was about to happen. It was threatened by military draft. To avoid it, in 1852 he moved in Avstro - Hungary, to Vienna where he some time worked at the Vienna university.
Since 1860 Markus had an opportunity to completely devote himself to own hobbies among which the main place was taken by electrical equipment. It invented the telephone relay, the microphone, a loudspeaker, electric safety locks for underwater mines and other.
Siegfried solved many technical problems and which - that patented. In only one Avstro - Hungary to it possesses 38 patents. Broad application was found by the magnetoelectric ignition (mag) opened by Markus in 1864 which began to be used later in internal combustion engines. Markus`s carburetor patented in 1865 found practical application first of all in the engine of air cooling of Langen I Wolf firm, and soon and in its own.
By then engines reckoned with air cooling as already outdated. For creation of an advanced internal combustion engine Markus found the manufacturer in Vienna - Jacob Warchalowski (the Pole, the aircraft designer and the pilot), and in Prague - firm Marky, Bromovsky I Schulz.
The single-cylinder engine constructed by Siegfried with a capacity of 1570 with the m3 reached the power of 0,73 kW (1 hp) at 300 rpm. Turns were regulated by means of the gate. As cooling served natural turnover of the water arriving from the big tank under a back seat. The engine weighed 280 kg and had the carburetor of own design which was warmed with exhaust gases. The inventor tested it in September, 1870 on the first self-moving vehicle, and then constructed more compact motor.
In 1875 Markus put the engine on a wooden frame from a horse droshky on 4 - x wooden wheels. Forward wheels turned together with an axis, and for management the small steering wheel was adapted. The driver and the passenger sat on a wooden bench in the center of the car. On the first sample the forward axis had rubber pillows which replaced then with metal springs. Back wheels fastened to a frame rigidly and were supplied with brake boots. They nestled the hand lever directly on rims of wheels. Transmission put not the crankshaft, but a flywheel in action. From it rotation was transferred to back wheels by means of conic coupling and a belt drive.
This car was assembled at mechanical plant of Liechtenstein in the town Adamov - near the city of Brno in the modern Czech Republic. This country then was Avstro`s part - Hungary.
To the car - or rather the motor vehicle - Siegfried Markus local inhabitants and police at first were hostile, and he had to test the invention at night, on quiet streets near a cemetery. It occurred already in Vienna where Markus`s car was transported by rail. Its char-a-banc hardly - hardly trudged on cobblestone roads, mercilessly sneezing and cracking, frightening dogs and respectable citizens. Speed of the motor vehicle of Markus made 6 - 8 km/h and did not make any impression. It was easily overtaken not only by horse crews, but also fashionable then bicycles.
Nobody became interested in Siegfried`s invention. However it, eternally dirty, with the face covered with a soot, without paying attention to angry exclamations of citizens, the child continued to test the.
Markus in 1889 died. Now it is almost forgotten, covered with names of Daimler, Benz and other designers of cars which models appeared much later.
The destiny of the first car of Siegfried Markus developed so. After death of the inventor in 1898 its car was taken away in Avstro - the Hungarian automobile club, and then it became an exhibit of the technical museum in Vienna. Near it long time there was a plate: “Markus`s vehicle (1875) . It is ready to action“.
The Austrians in 1898 erected to Siegfried Markus a monument. He became one of national heroes and as one of outstanding inventors of the 19th century living in Vienna was represented on the Austrian brand (1971).
The Austrians are firmly sure that the first-ever car was created at them in far 1875 - long before in other countries there were his more successful rivals who achieved official recognition.
Also this car remained - it is in the Vienna industrial museum. The hologram of the first car with the petrol engine Z. Markus it was exhibited in 1997 at the National museum of science and technology in Haifa at the Jews of Vienna exhibition prepared by the Jewish museum in the capital of Austria.