Where there is a capital of the Golden Horde?
A are valid where? You think where - nibud in Mongolia? From what you took it? Ah, in textbooks of history something was written about Tatar - the Mongolian yoke... And never confused you that Tatars live on Volga, and Mongols practically in the Far East?
So where capital of the Golden Horde? Ask about it any Astrakhan school student.
Of course, the capital of the Golden Horde the city the Shed - to Bath is in the Astrakhan region - he will answer you. And any Astrakhan school student knows about it not because he is cleverer than school students from other regions of Russia but because now became fashionable to go there by excursion.
Also we will go to one such excursion.
So, early morning, gathers on a schoolyard three classes which instead of lessons will go today to excursion to excavation. The huge two-storeyed bus is rented, and all people quietly accommodate in it. Children, of course, got on the second floor, two teachers, and small groups of parents went there, and those several “unfortunate“ who did not get places above, settled down on the first floor.
We leave. Passersby with surprise look back at this miracle of engineering thought. Not every day you will meet the two-storeyed bus in Astrakhan.
The whole two hours we move on the Astrakhan steppe. Behind a window quite sad landscape. It is not the steppe, but some semi-desert. But surprisingly it turns out that at us there are a lot of rivers and rivulets. From a window of the bus it is visible a heron which stood in some bog. Really, tremendous look.
But here the bus moves down from the route and kilometers seven goes on a simple country road, nayezzhenny other transport. The people from the second floor begin to run away to us, on the first. There it becomes intolerable hot. Our bus stops.
We in the desert. The district is quite strange, literally in meters five hundred - kilometer the river Akhtuba, and here the real desert bears the waters. From vegetation only a camel prickle and just prickles to which we and namings do not know, under legs one sand. Exotic, in a word. It is good still that today it is quite cool. Only degrees 25-26 Celsius, the sky is covered with cloudlets, and the refreshing breeze blows.
The guide brings us on an excavation. The excavation is a small hole, about a half-meter in depth. At the bottom of a hole it is visible walls, wells, furnaces. The guide with delight tells that there was a water supply system and shows openings where this water supply system passed.
In general, the first capital of the Golden Horde the city the Shed - to Bath was based by Genghis Khan`s grandson khan Batyem in 1254. The ancient settlement which remained from the first capital of the Golden Horde, the city of Batyya strikes with the sizes. Raskinutoye on several hillocks, it lasts on the left coast of Akhtuba more than on 15 km. The city grew very quickly. At the beginning of the 14th century it was the real capital - with continuous rows of houses, with mosques (from which 13 were cathedral), with palaces which walls sparkled mosaic patterns, with the reservoirs filled with transparent water with the extensive markets and warehouses. On the highest hill over the coast of Akhtuba the hansky palace towered. According to a legend, the palace of the khan was decorated with gold therefore all state began to be called the Golden Horde.
While the guide, choking with delight, zhivopisut beauty of the past, the look necessarily is late on the present. Not far the village of Selitrennoye was located. Several poor houses covered with dust and which burned out on the sun. Neither trees, nor blade. Boring landscape. How so, fountains and water supply systems in the 13th century - and lack of any conveniences in XXI? It is trusted hardly.
Meanwhile the guide suggests to move to other place. Here, directly on the bank of Akhtuba, it is possible to find crocks, the remains of a laying and t. d, etc. School students instantly turn into treasure-hunters. And literally in a few minutes they in hands have heaps of the crocks and the remains of a wall having historical value.
One boy found the handle from a jug, another - a piece something with a glaze list. At the others just crocks from pots and the laying pieces covered on the one hand with blue paint. Children already even ceased to run up to the guide: if there is a blue paint, the sample ancient means. Having gathered a heap of souvenirs, we come back to the bus.
I twist the head all the time and I stay in somebody bewilderment. The matter is that about two years ago I already was on this excavation, but then showed us absolutely other places. I stick with a question to the guide.
- Those excavations already preserved, - the guide explains.
- Just again cover with earth.
I go silently. On the one hand I understand that if so not to make, then the nature and people will do irreparable harm to historical values. And on the other hand - dug out to bury again?
Our bus comes out to the route and after a while moves down on off road terrain again. This time turn is so dangerous that the driver is afraid that this two-storeyed vast object will overturn, and asks to go out passengers of the bus.
But here all dangers behind, and before us a panorama of the small clay town. Or perhaps and big, to medieval measures. Two hectares in size. The guide honestly warns that the town not real. These are scenery from shooting “Horde“. We did not see the movie yet, it did not come out. But scenery quite precisely recreated a townscape of the XIII-XIV centuries, and we with pleasure were photographed there. “Ancient“ clay walls of buildings, small streets and the areas, carts and furnaces, are even a trough in which I did not fail “to wash“ which - that. All this creates feeling of stay in the Middle Ages.
Near the town tilt carts of nomads settled down, in one of them it is possible to see household items, another is a usual cafe, however, with the unusual prices. The water small bottle costs 80 rubles there. In the city it, of course, costs 20, but all water which was taken with themselves, already hot. And here - from the refrigerator. Meanwhile the sun burned all. Here hot. Someone from children did not sustain and bought this literally “gold“ water.
Still there are a souvenir booth and a toilet. The toilet is very actual here. Why? And if to look at a district photo, it becomes clear. Still the people had no place to retire simply.
Further we suit a small piknichok in a lesochka, teeming with snakes. From where undertook lesochek in the middle of the desert? As it was already told, all territory of the area is literally penetrated by small erika and ilmenyam. Here at these reservoirs trees also crowd together.
Is it was necessary quickly because brought all food sand, began to drizzle a rain, and we urgently left the parking of Tatars as roads could become limp, and it threatened ourselves to become exhibits of excavation.
Return to Astrakhan was marked by nothing special.
So, we will sum up the result of our travel. If you the true fan of history, and you do not frighten the difficulties connected with hot summer climate of the Astrakhan region you will find a lot of in this travel of interesting. And if you go not in the summer, and in September - October, then it in general will be country walk. And on money - real kopeks. If you go orderly, with group and the guide, depending on travel agency, it will cost you on 500-1000 rubles from the person. Though on the websites for Muscovites I met offers and to 10 thousand. This sum included journey, an insurance, escort of the guide, visit of an excavation, visit of scenery and a tilt cart - the museum.
But it is possible and to save still if to go “savage“. Of course, you vryad will lisamostoyatelno find an excavation, but to visit the town quite really. It will cost only 200 rubles. Hundred for an entrance on scenery and as much for a tilt cart.
The best way to study history is to visit such places. At least, the Astrakhan school students precisely know now that history is not somewhere there, is unclear where. All great events took place absolutely nearby, here, where we with them live today!