What features of ecology of big cities?
Inhabitants of the stone jungle hardly reflect about volume how urban environment of dwelling differs from natural. Such comparison, perhaps, occurs only when warms the spring sun and there is a strong wish to leave on the nature the bothered noisy and dirty city.
Big cities and industrial zones differ from the environment surrounding them:
- high extent of development of the territory;
- compactness of accommodation of inhabitants;
- the developed industrial production and municipal services.
Emergence and development of big cities and industrial zones affects all components of environment: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, a plant and animal life, the soil, a relief, climate, etc.
as a result of emergence and development of the cities an environment strongly changes in comparison with natural, existing earlier and remained in the adjoining territories. At the same time the artificial environment is created new, in many respects.
In the cities the specific urboekosistema is formed . It represents unstable prirodno - the anthropogenous system including architecturally - construction objects and sharply broken natural ecosystems. In process of development urboekosisty there is a change interconnected natural, socially - economic, demographic and other characteristics of an urban environment that leads to strengthening of systemacity during an urbanization.
The ecosystems existing earlier in the territory of big cities and industrial zones or absolutely collapse, or only their separate elements remain. For the urbanized territories it is necessary to speak not about preservation of the natural ecosystems existing here earlier, and about creation and development new urboekosisty. They include those elements of natural ecosystems which are necessary for creation of optimum conditions of residence of the person in the city.
With a development of the city and its integration, the people living in this city move away from natural environment more and more. Already it is possible to imagine that in the future the person will live and work in the cities and industrial zones which are physically isolated from all directions from the “adjoining“ territories that is in the artificial environment which is completely created by him.
Well it or is bad? Opinions are about it very inconsistent: from the most pessimistic to extremely optimistic. It is important to note that, irrespective of the existing opinions, such fantastic picture of the future becomes more and more real.
The transformed or again created environment - the urboekosistema, is supported only by the person. Therefore it is rather vulnerable as concerning anthropogenous, and biotic and physical factors of environment. If natural ecosystems during the long period of time support the state in limits, necessary for their existence, then the transformed urban environment needs the constant help of the person for maintenance of its parameters of functioning. In this regard in big cities continuous excess of external consumption over internal, and also a constant supply of energy and weight from the outside is observed.
Now considerable efforts go for maintenance of changes of environment in big cities and industrial zones, positive for the person. However, despite it here, along with positive, all are more shown the negative changes caused by both objective, and subjective factors.
The paradox turns out: despite aspiration to creation in the city of the most comfortable living conditions and works of the population, initially, under the influence of more and more increasing anthropogenous loading, in urboekosistema happen the changes of environment directed against the person. The whole range of the environmental problems of quality of environment connected with safety and securities of the person as urboekosistema component, from harmful effects of technogenic and natural ecological factors results.
Many believe that deterioration in an ecological situation in the cities - the new phenomenon which the mankind faced several decades ago that is caused by fast development of the industry. But it not so. The environmental problems connected with development of the cities are old as the world.
For example, in the cities of the ancient world big density of the population was noted. So, in Alexandria in the I-II centuries AD. population density made 760 people on 1 hectare, in Rome - 1500. (In the center of modern New - York 1 thousand people is the share of 1 hectare!) In the ancient cities there were very narrow streets, their width was within 2-4 m. The riders moving on such streets and vehicles created unimaginable noise. The sanitary condition of the cities left much to be desired, and it led to flashes of dangerous epidemics, such as plague.
Not casually in the old days some philosophers had doubts and whether big cities are necessary in general. For example, Aristotle and Platon repeatedly wrote treatises in which they discussed questions of the optimum sizes of settlements, their rational device, planning, architecture and interrelation with the surrounding nature.
During an era of industrial revolution process of integration of the cities began to gain steam. By the beginning of the 20th century in the world there were 12 cities with the population more than one million people. Two million-strong cities were in Russia. Scientifically - technical revolution led to the fact that industrial outputs increased is thousandfold, installed power per employee increased, information transfer speed etc. of
mankind recklessly takes All resources for the needs from our biosphere. For many years the consumer relation to the nature as to a certain inexhaustible source was created. But the nature began to revenge the person - “owner of land“ cruelly: it became difficult for people to breathe in big cities whether it is difficult to find clear water … it is time for
to stop and look around at work of the? It is necessary to reconsider the relation of the person to environment radically. It is necessary to bring up new generation of people (it is desirable since the early childhood), which with understanding would belong to problems of interaction of the person and the nature and used the latest technologies to keep what else remained.
Only then big cities and industrial zones will not be “the black holes» devouring people, and history of mankind will have the happy continuation.