Why people so seek to live in big cities?
If to ask “where do you live“, more than a half of people will answer - in the city such - with the population such-. Only the few will be able to brag that live in the settlement or in the village.
Classification of the cities by population
According to the classification accepted in Russia city settlements with population over one million belong to the largest cities , with the population of 250-1000 thousand people - to large , with the population of 100-250 thousand people - to big , 50-100 thousand - to averages , 20-50 thousand - to small. Now in Russia about one thousand cities and more than two thousand settlements of city type in which about 70% of the population of the country live is available.
Over the last 50 years the share of urban population of Russia increased from 52 up to 73%. The big, large and largest cities (further for brevity - big) differ from the average and small cities on a number of signs:
- territories, occupied with various constructions;
- intensity of its development;
- the anthropogenous pressure upon the occupied territory;
- destruction of natural ecosystems;
- formation of a specific urboekosistema, significantly different from a natural ecosystem.
we understand biological system which part live organisms, the environment of their dwelling and system of communications providing an exchange of substance and energy between them are as ecosystem. Urboekosistema - it is artificial sozdannaya the Wednesday supported by the person. Here the cities and settlements of city type belong.
of the Problem of life in big cities
the General tendency of development and growth of the cities consists in the progressing deterioration in living conditions in them. One of the greatest tragedies of the cities consists that they, being the materialized civilization level of development, become not only inconvenient, but also substantially life-threatening.
In million-strong cities the population cannot reproduce itself, prevalence of citizens of advanced age is characteristic of them. Growth of the population happens at the expense of a mechanical gain: migration from rural areas and the small cities, and also from the former Soviet republics and foreign countries.
In the cities such ugly phenomena as rise in crime, drug addiction, alcoholism prosper. The cities often compare to demographic “black holes“, “monsters, devouring the human race“, predict death to big cities. Nevertheless, experience of mankind shows that there is no alternative to the city.
It is clear, that life in rural areas generally healthier, than in the city. Nevertheless “average» the Russian has no desire to move to rural areas, though wishes to go to days off on the dacha.
In the western countries with perfectly developed road and information infrastructure, and also existence of personal vehicles outflow of middle class from the cities to suburbs was replaced by return to the cities.
Why the cities are attractive to life?
Resilience of the city is explained by the fact that this type of the settlement most satisfies basic needs of people:
- it is comfortable to live in the city as here first of all all appears new and progressive;
- is easier to graduate;
- is easier to find a congenial employment in the city;
- the city - an incubator for the creative activity forming the new directions in science, production, art, culture.
The cities reflect history of development of a civilization. In big cities the variety of branches of production and service is concentrated, their developed infrastructure promotes modernization old and to development of new productions and workplaces. The variety and high concentration of places of application of work, and also ways of carrying out leisure “outweighs“ ecological shortcomings of the cities in the opinion of inhabitants.
An urbanization - the progressive phenomenon. We want it or not, the cities and industrial zones are and will develop for a long time. Not incidentally the World Health Organization (WHO) a few years ago organized in the Japanese city of Kobe the International scientific center on development and carried to number of the main directions of its activity of a problem of an urbanization and research of a modern situation in the largest cities of the world.
In many cities of the world the population exceeds 250 thousand people already now. These cities already substantially stood apart from surrounding habitat as owing to the big territories occupied by them and owing to big power load of environment.
A specific place concerning an environmental pressure is held by industrial zones where big power capacities and intensive industrial production are concentrated, as a rule.
the City - a powerful source of pollution
First of all, megalopolises pollute the atmosphere. In recent years this process became swept especially up. Exhaust gases from cars and emissions of the industrial enterprises belong to the main sources of pollution of city air . In passing with air the soil and water becomes soiled . In many cities to drink water from - under the crane - it is life-threatening. Somehow I was invited to the television program where quality of various filters for water was estimated. To all experts allowed to try a voditsa from the St. Petersburg water supply system, and then after cleaning with various filters. It appeared to define quality of tap water, it needs to be smelled only …
of One of big problems of the cities is utilization of solid industrial and household waste . Modern technologies of waste recycling are far not everywhere, and standard types of waste burning plants do not cope with the increasing garbage volume.
The mentioned problems are not unsoluble. In Japan, Germany and the USA a lot of work on improvement of an ecological situation in the large cities is carried out. For example, walking on streets of Tucson (the city with the million population) located in Arizona, the USA, even in rush hours you will not feel a gasoline smell as in the country there are strict requirements to quality of issue of cars.
It is probable if very much to want, it is possible to turn the city into the urbanized oasis convenient and safe for life.