The newspaper, the magazine, shop - that between them the general?
C of 1539 in Venice the small silver coin on which originally represented a soroka was in use. In Italian this bird is called “la gazza“ (“gatsets“), a coin on the birdie represented on it nicknamed “gadzety“ (la gazzetta).
Gadzeta was a money medium-sized. The wealthy Venetian willingly gave it for a paper leaf with the latest news which therefore too began to call “gadzety“, or “newspaper“ . The Venetian newspapers were at first hand-written, and after the invention of printing began to issue them.
History of newspapers began with correspondence between merchants and their contractors. In the letters sent to Venice from around the world it was reported not only about successful or unsuccessful transactions. There were also news about different events which could influence business management anyway. First of all news political were reported, of course. But merchant correspondence contained a lot of other useful, interesting and just amusing information. Of course, nobody let out a confidential information. However in a harem of the Turkish sultan or about the remote countries in hot Africa why not to talk about customs in decent society? Data from merchant letters which called avviz (in Italian “avviso“ - “the certificate of the eyewitness“) got into general Venetian public and were actively discussed on squares and in nobility assemlies. Soon enough there were enterprising people who were collecting and making multiple copies data from an avviza, and after cheap selling them in places of a congestion of public. For one gadzeta.
The Venetian captains swam across all Mediterranean Sea, the Venetian copyists of news worked quickly. Soon enough Venice became not only the exclusive seller of east spices and magnificent mirrors, but also and the European supplier of news. Many monarchs about events in the world, happened, learned not from the ambassadors, and from the Venetian newspapers.
Except overseas news, newspapers reported also to news local. In newspapers the lampoons and lampoons shaking the city were located is much stronger, than the volcanic eruption Etna shook not distant Sicily. Truly, the newspaper appeared not only the collective informant, but also and the collective organizer.
Progress knows no limit. Newspapers began to appear across all Europe, and the word “newspaper“ without the translation got to all European languages. In 1631 Labe is a physician of the French king Teofrast Renodo (Th é ophraste Renaudot) (1586-1653) began to publish weekly headline news which were called by “La Gazette“ in Paris. Actually it was the first French national newspaper for what French still also revere Renodo`s memory. The cardinal Rishelyyo was a curator of the newspaper, and the newspaper was read by the king. Thanks to the status of the official newspaper of the French government, “La Gazette“ rather safely lived to 19 - go centuries.
The majority of newspapers appeared daily. Therefore in their France began to call the word “journal“ (“daily log“). In Russia this word began to designate the “thick“ multipage editions appearing not more often than once a month. Why such disparate? Because “journal“ in French it also “diary“. Diaries gained distribution in Russia at the time of Catherine II. The fashion on them remained also in later times. Diaries - magazines of solid people were extremely solid too: large by the size, on dense paper and in good cover. It was supposed, as thoughts in them register solid and important. And on such contents were guided by such appearance the editors of magazines and almanacs of a Pushkin time.
Quite frequent mistake of inexperienced translators: to translate the word “journal“ into Russian as “magazine“. No, only “newspaper“! “Magazine“ in French and in English will be “ of magazine “.
Well, here, again some strange disparate. In Russian “shop“ is a room where sell various goods. What does it have to do with magazines? And here at what.
Both in English, and in French languages the word “magazine“ has one more value - “warehouse“. Similar words for designation of a warehouse are also in other Western European languages. This word (quite perhaps, not without means of the same Venetians) got to Western Europe from Arab. On - it is Arab “ìàõñàí“ - “warehouse“. There is a similar word with the same value and in Hebrew.
With Russian “shop“ it became a little more clear. But nevertheless at what here respectable (and not really) the European magazines?
The matter is that in 1731 the London publisher Edward Cave (Edward Cave) (1691-1754) conceived to begin release of the printing edition having the widest subject. As envisioned by Cave, the reader could find information on everything in this edition that can only interest him: from the last quotations at the exchange to features of Ancient Greek poetry. Magazines of so wide profile in world practice were not issued yet. This edition E. Cave very opportunely called of “The Gentleman`s Magazine“ : such place, like a warehouse where the inquisitive gentleman will find everything that can only interest him.
“The Gentleman`s Magazine“ was the first-ever magazine in modern sense of this word. It is not sophisticated that the name “magazine“ was fixed in English and in French languages behind similar editions as in due time the name “newspaper“ was assigned to all news leaves.