How to turn life on 180 °? In search of the lost sense of
One of the main characteristics of life - its sense. Obviously or in the hidden look the question of meaning of life concerns each person. At the vital choice it sets a reference point, serves as a support in a difficult situation. When the person has no arguments in favor of life, the main driving force - meaning of life is lost.
How to return lives the lost sense? The answer to this question is offered by Victor Frankl, the famous Austrian psychologist, the creator of the existential analysis (logoterapiya).
The existential analysis considers human life from a position of vital values. Logoterapiya as one of the directions of existential psychology studies not only life, but also sense. The theory of a logoterapiya and the existential analysis created by V. Frankl represents system of philosophical and psychological views on essence of the person and mechanisms of development of the personality. In the doctrine V. Frankl allocates three main parts: about aspiration to sense, about meaning of life and about a free will.
Three links of a logoterapiya
V. Frankl considers that the logoterapiya is based on philosophy of life and considers spiritual expectations of the person, tries to draw his aspiration to meaning of life, to clear sense of its existence. Frankl gives the characteristic to the main parts of the doctrine as follows:
1. Free will. the Person is not free from conditions neither biological, nor psychological, nor sociological. Ho it always needs free to take a certain position concerning these conditions. It it is necessary free to change the attitude towards them.
2. Will to sense. Tension between life and sense is deep-rooted in the person. It is internally inherent in life of the person and therefore it is necessary for mental health. From will to sense, that is semantic orientation of the person, we come to other problem - to his semantic confrontation. The first belongs to what the person represents initially: it is focused on sense. The second concerns to what it has to be: it has to find sense.
3. Meaning of life. the Sense is not invented, the person finds it. The meaning of life has to be expressed to concrete sense of human life in the set situation. Life represents a chain of questions which the person has to answer with the responsibility, the decisions, the choice of how to answer specific questions.
the Tragic triad
V. Frankl pays attention that human life does not do without tragic experiences. It designates them as “a tragic triad“ which contains initial attributes of human life: suffering, fault and death.
The person, according to Frankl, is ready and wishes to take out any suffering while finds in it sense. There are situations when the person is deprived of an opportunity to go about the own business or to enjoy life, and at the same time cannot avoid suffering. In courageous acceptance of such suffering life finds and keeps sense up to the end.
Alfred Lengle, the pupil and the follower V. Frankla, notes that for the suffering person its decision becomes the main thing: whether he will want to accept suffering or will try to evade from destiny through denial of reality. Only for the person, according to A. Lengle, there is an option of that, as he suffers and for the sake of what should live further whether there will be at it new relations and values for the sake of which he, despite suffering, is ready to continue to live.
When it is impossible to change owing to what we were guilty and to bear responsibility, then wines, Frankl considers, it can be rethought, and here again everything depends on that, the person is how ready to take the correct position in relation to himself - to regret sincerely deeds.
“The person solves every instant: what of opportunities will be carried out and what are doomed to a non-existence. What choice will be made once and for all, having left “an immortal mark on time sand?“ Every instant the person has to solve - inclining to good or to the evil, - that will become a monument to its existence“. (V. Frankl) Frankl brings
to thought that the extremity of human existence leads to intelligence of life. Proceeding from it, he draws the following conclusion: if the person was immortal, then delays and delays of all his affairs would be justified. For the person it makes sense to use the leaving time only on condition of an existence extremity. Tension of poles of the world and the person V. Frankl points
to an inevitable situation of intensity between the person and “world“ in which it is. He claims that the person needs not lack of tension, and efforts and fight for the embodiment of the desires.
“The person needs not so much weakening of tension, how many a call from concrete sense of its personal life which has to be realized by it, and nobody it is more. That it is really necessary for the person - so this sufficient tension resulting from emergence of sense which it has to realize. This tension is internally inherent in human life leaves to the person a freedom of choice: to realize sense or to refuse the sense waiting for the realization“. (Century. Frankl)
Turn of life on 180 °
Frankl claims that the question of meaning of life needs to be turned on 180 ° that it was possible to find the essence of the answer: not the person questions life concerning sense, and life asks the person questions. The person, on a deep belief of Frankl, is that from whom asks life and who has to answer and be before it for it responsible. And answers of the person can be only concrete answers to specific vital questions.
A. Lengle is supported by V. Frankla in a key position of intelligent life - to be ready to see and accept inquiries of life, to allow life of to request. The main prerequisite of intelligent human life, according to Lengle, consists in his internal relation to life.
Follows from the above that a task of the person to find the meaning of life in a concrete situation, “having turned from the person questioning at life in the person answering vital questions“. To carry out the turn of the position offered by V. Frankl in relation to life on 180 ° and to be ready to accept inquiries of life.
“The sense defines vital progress and defeats. It is known that its loss turns into despair. While the person is living, he struggles with this vital question, is conscious or not whether its searches are called searches of sense or somehow differently, one is invariable: what is meant sense - the main thing in human life“. (V. Frankl)