What were local Purima in the Jewish history?
Purim are the most joyful Jewish holiday in memory of an event when the lots were cast (“ Pur “ in Hebrew) - to remain to Jews live or to die.
the Persian tsar Artaxerxes (“Akhashverosh “ in Hebrew) governing in the 4th century BC chose by to himself in wives the beautiful, gentle and modest girl Esther, without guessing that she is Jew. Esther`s uncle is Mordechai, the great Jewish scientist and the righteous person, saved life to Akhashverosh for what that ordered to enter a name of Mordechai in imperial chronicles.
The first minister Aman, the person artful and spiteful, awfully became angry on Mordechai for the fact that that did not kneel down and did not bow to him. Aman conceived to ruin not only Mordechai, but also all Jews. He made the decree in which it was ruled to ruin, destroy, wipe off the face of the earth all Jews, and sealed its imperial.
Mordechai, having learned about it, asked Esther to go to the tsar and to beg him to repeal the scary decree. The queen managed to persuade Akhashverosh to present life to her and its people. Aman was executed, and the tsar issued the new decree in which Jews were recommended to be ready to protection against enemies and to kill those who will raise a hand against them.
And it happened. All who expected to profit at the expense of Jews, were interrupted. And the tsar Akhashverosh appointed Mordechai the first minister. So the grief and crying turned back a victory and pleasure for the Jewish people.
But in the Jewish history at different times and in the different countries there were miracles of disposal of Jews of destruction, so-called local Purima .
In the 11th century in Granada there lived the head of the Jewish community, the vizier, the commander-in-chief, the close friend and the assistant to the local Caliph Shmuel and - nagid. As the Caliph Badis was almost not engaged in public affairs, Shmuel and - nagid was the actual governor of Granada. Governors of Seville, the main rival of Granada, pursued the anti-Jewish policy. In 1039 Shmuel and - nagid began war against Seville and won a difficult victory. On August 24, 1039 in Granada conspirators made attempt at Shmuel and - a nagida, but he did not suffer. In memory of this wonderful rescue city Jews established “Granada Purim“ .
On February 29, 1236 in Narbonna there was the Jewish disorder from - for quarrels between the Jew and the Christian as a result of which the Christian was killed. The dead, fortunately, were not, but the property of Jews was plundered. In commemoration of the fact that everything ended rather safely the Jewish city community established “narbonnsky Purim“ .
On February 2, 1420 Jews of Zaragoza were accused of disrespect for the king. It was offered to them to meet the king with Torah rolls. However local anti-Semites declared that cases for the Torah are empty. Jews right there showed to the king cases with Torah rolls. Spitpoisons were shamed. In memory of this event which was regarded as a miracle Jews established annual “saragossky Purim“ .
The Turkish governor of Cairo threatened to cut all Jews if they do not bring large repayment. On March 3, 1524 he was killed by soldiers. This day was celebrated by annually Jewish community of Cairo as “the Egyptian Purim“ .
On Saturday November 14, 1541 the fleet of the Spanish king Charles V tried to take fortress Algeria. If it occurred, then local Jews should either be christened, or die. They fasted and prayed in synagogues. Suddenly the storm burst, and the Spanish fleet died. Since then this day was celebrated as “the Algerian Purim“ .
At the beginning of the 17th century of the relation between Jews and Christians in Frankfurt am Main sharply worsened. City patritsiat patronized Jews whose standard of living raised, despite the general stagnation of a city economy. The shops which are not presented in municipality which were headed by Christians were seen in Jews of dangerous competitors.
Prjanitschnik Vinzent Fetmilch who named himself “new Aman“ was the leader of handicraftsmen - Christians. He demanded from a city patritsiat to expel Jews from the city allegedly for the fact that they bribed municipality. It, according to Fetmilch, led to the fact that Jews thus had an opportunity with impunity to break restrictive laws and to profit at the expense of Christians.
When patritsiat rejected this requirement, attacks both on Jews, and on members of municipal council began. On May 4, 1614 the group of handicraftsmen - Christians of Frankfurt am Main tried to rush into a local Jewish ghetto, but was rejected. On August 22, 1614 the big crowd of thugs under Vinzent Fetmilch`s leadership attacked the Jewish quarter again. Its inhabitants who were protected up in arms were forced to look for shelters in houses of Christians and on a cemetery. Thugs plundered property of Jews and burned that could not carry away.
On August 24, 1614 Vinzent Fetmilch who actually seized power in the city, ordered to expel from the city of Jews. The Jewish women and children were already taken earlier beforehand out to safe places. 1380 people, generally men, left Frankfurt am Main. All exiles located in neighboring towns and villages.
Approximately in one and a half years, on March 10, 1616, Jews accompanied by group of government troops at sounds of pipes and drums solemnly entered Frankfurt am Main. Under the decree of the emperor Matthias the leader of handicraftsmen Vinzent Fetmilch was chetvertovan, and parts of his body were paraded in different parts of the city. His house was demolished, and on this place established a pillory with the poem in the German and Latin languages which described Fetmilch`s execution.
The emperor Matthias took the Frankfurt Jews under the protection and forever forbade municipality to expel those from them who lived in Frankfurt am Main more than three years. It also imputed to the city authorities a duty to ensure safety of the Jewish community. The emperor ordered to pay to Jews as compensation 175 thousand gold at the expense of the city budget. In memory of events of 1614-16 Jews of the city founded annual “the Frankfurt Purim“ .
On August 10, 1684 in the city of Padua on North - the East of Italy rumors that Jews helped Turks during Buda`s siege were spread. The crowd attacked the Jewish ghetto, but the army and part of citizens stopped disorder. To stop excesses, the authorities entered the death penalty for thugs. In memory of the rescue Jews of Padua annually celebrated “Thanksgiving Day“, so-called “Purim di Buda“ .
On December 29, 1690 the seaport Ancona in Italy was destroyed by an earthquake. The Jewish community of the city wonderfully avoided death. In memory of this rescue this day it is celebrated by “Purim Ankona“ .
On August 25, 1743 Culiemang - the Pasha after 83 days of a siege withdrew the troops from Tiberias besieged by him nearly three months. In three days he died. Since then Jews of Tiberias celebrate these days local Purim .
In 1953 in the USSR Stalin, following in the footsteps of Hitler, planned “a final decision of a Jewish problem“: On March 6 had to will take place trial of doctors - murderers whom forced to admit imperfect crimes. So-called “business of doctors - wreckers“ had to prepare “public opinion“ of the country for eviction of Jews from all republics of the USSR to Yakutia, to the district of Verkhoyansk and to other Areas of Siberia and the Far East where frosts reached to minus 68 degrees. The considerable part of the Jewish population was planned to be destroyed in way hands of the flown into a rage crowd. Everything was ready to process Jews in ashes.
On March 5, 1953 it was declared Stalin`s death. One more Aman died, and Jews escaped.