You, I, it, it - together... organic chemistry?
of People - precisely a product of organic chemistry and, according to unchecked data, God. Organic compound which we face hourly in infancy and daily at the age of reason, - urea .
Its synthesis in 1828 which is carried out by F. Voeller disproved the doctrine about vital force . It was the first synthesis of organic substance from inorganic out of a live organism - Voeller carried out a regrouping of cyanate of ammonium in urea when heating in water solution.
The organic chemistry studies compounds of carbon with other elements - so-called organic compounds - and laws of their transformations. At the beginning of organic chemistry substances of a biological origin were a subject of its studying mainly. The organic chemistry is obliged to this fact by the name. The term is entered by Y. Bertselius (the doctor of medicine).
The great influence on development of organic chemistry was exerted to by the theory of a chemical structure (A. M. Butlerov, 1861). Ability of carbon to connect to the majority of elements and to form molecules of various structure and a structure causes variety of organic compounds (by the end of the 20th century their number exceeded 10 million).
Synthesis of numerous organic substances led to creation of new industries - to production of synthetic dyes, polymers, artificial liquid fuel and food. It was succeeded to synthesize vitamins, hormones, enzymes. A number of the directions of organic chemistry grew in big special sections as, for example chemistry of high-molecular connections.
the Variety of organic compounds is in many respects caused by an isomerism - ability of connections at identical structure and weight to differ with a structure and, therefore, physical and chemical properties.
The subject of organic chemistry includes: release of individual substances from vegetable, animal or fossil raw materials, synthesis and cleaning of connections, definition of structure of substances, definition of mechanisms of chemical reactions, identification of communications between structure of organic substances and their properties.
Main by method of organic chemistry is synthesis. Development of methods of synthesis, first of all, promoted establishment of a structure of the most difficult connections. Ideal completion of process of definition of structure of molecules of organic compounds is full synthesis, that is receiving by means of absolutely unambiguous chemical methods of connection which structure was offered on the basis of studying by other methods.
Organic synthesis connects organic chemistry with chemical industry - as low-tonnage (thin organic synthesis, production of drugs, vitamins, liquid crystals, enzymes, pheromones, etc.), and large-capacity (the main organic synthesis, production of artificial fiber, plastic, oil refining and gas, etc.) .
In this area the Novosibirsk institute of organic chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Institute of organic chemistry work (Moscow), Institute of organic chemistry of UNTs Russian Academy of Sciences (Ufa). There is “A magazine of organic chemistry“. It is possible to read an infinite number of textbooks, including Berezin B. D., the Course of modern organic chemistry (M, the Higher school, 2003).
The old man comes to a drugstore and asks: - At you is 2,3,3a, 4,5,6 - Geksogidro - 8 - methyl - 1H - pirazino [3. 2. 1 - j, k] Karbozolgidrokhlorid?
The druggist, several minutes having thought, asks another: - We have acetate of Retinolum?
That: - Vitamin A, perhaps?
Grandfather: - Aha, it is most. I remember that vitamin and what - forgot!