Inorganic chemistry: old or new science?
On the one hand, inorganic chemistry - well very elderly old woman. The alchemy in fact was inorganic.
The inorganic chemistry studies chemical elements and simple and complex substances formed by them (except organic compounds of carbon). The number of inorganic substances comes nearer to 400 000.
On the other hand, it provides creation of materials of the latest equipment . Fundamentals of inorganic chemistry is the Periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev. I will stop only on two types of new inorganic materials - fullerita and ceramic.
In scientifically - the technical center “Supersolid Materials“ (Troitsk) researches of new carbon materials, firmer, than diamond continue. These materials - fullerita - were synthesized by researchers of the center in 1993.
Fullerita - products of volume polymerization of spherical carbon molecules of fulleren With 60 and With 70 with a pressure over 90 thousand atmospheres and temperature more than 300 about Page
the Received material completely keeps rigid structure of fulleren which at polymerization connect among themselves strong diamondlike communications. It leads to emergence of the spatial frameworks possessing abnormally high rigidity and hardness.
Hardness of fullerit is comparable with a hardness of diamond. New material already found practical application. On its basis the device of new type - the scanning microprofilometer - the hardness gage in which a needle for measurement of hardness and a probe are made of an ultrafirm fullerit was created. It allowed to increase at 5-10 times service life of a probe and to strongly expand possibilities of the device.
For the first time the hardness of various crystallographic planes of diamond managed to measure by the Fulleritovy needle precisely. Still the hardness of diamond was measured by a diamond needle; it inevitably led to mistakes as the main requirement was not fulfilled: material of a probe has to be significantly more solid than the examinee of material.
When a few years ago mass media distributed the forecast about fast approach of a ceramic era which in the history of a human civilization will take the place comparable to a Stone or bronze age, everything understood a giperbolichnost of such comparison. But it testified to undoubted interest in ceramic materials and need to satisfy this interest. Especially as the traditional image of ceramics which developed in consciousness of each of us significantly differs from that image which it is accepted to call future material.
One of such materials, undoubtedly, silicon nitride is which high-temperature durability, chemical firmness and ease allowed to create an internal combustion engine with record-breaking high (1400 about C) temperature of a working chamber that gave the chance to raise by 1,5 times of efficiency of the engine, is essential to cut fuel consumption and to reduce environmental pollution thanks to its fuller combustion.
In 1987 to G. Bednortsu and A. Muller the Nobel Prize for creation of ceramic superconductors was awarded .
The Institute of inorganic chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (Novosibirsk), Institute of the general and inorganic chemistry work (Moscow). There is “A magazine of inorganic chemistry“. It is possible to read an infinite number of textbooks, including Remy G., the Course of inorganic chemistry. (T. 1 - M, Prod. - in foreign literatures, 1963), (T. 2 - M, World, 1974).