Rus Articles Journal

Tver as it is. How the way from antiquity to the present is long?

It is known that in the speech on July 3, 1941 Stalin, having understood that it is obviously not enough Marx and Lenin`s one doctrine, remembered names of great Russian commanders: Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov, names of the people buried in oblivion by a revolutionary historiography of the first years of the Soviet power...

Fall of 1941 when messages with a mark “ Kalinin“ were published in the German newspapers, on the basis of the directive of the Rate of VGK the Kalinin front was formed of connections of the right wing of the Western front. In these conditions Stalin who remembered a name of the prince Alexander Nevsky, it appears, could remember and a name of his nephew - the prince Mikhail Yaroslavich Tver especially as on a monument to “the Millennium of Russia“ in Novgorod Mikhail of Tver is represented near Alexander Nevsky...

After Batyev of invasion to Russia to Tver people from the ruined places stretched. Tver the first in the humiliated and robbed Russia nominated the politician of national scale. It the prince Mikhail Yaroslavich of the Tverskaya appeared . In 1305 he to the first calls himself not just grand duke Vladimirsky, but the grand duke of Vsey of Russia. Mikhail of Tver the first of the Russian princes understood that its dissociation is the reason of weakness of Russia that for successful fight against the Horde yoke it is necessary to unite Russian lands. To unite the Russian principalities, it had to combat Moscow and Novgorod, to maintain difficult diplomatic relations with the Horde.

In December, 1317 in fight at the village of Bortenev in 40 versts from Tver the Tver host broke regiments of the Moscow prince Yury Danilovich. It was one of dismantling between princes with whom all Russian history was rich. Only feature of this fight between Tver and Moscow was the fact that the envoy of the khan Uzbek, the Tatar voivode Kavgady was an ally of the prince Yury Danilovich.

If the khan Tokhtamysh considered it necessary to punish Dmitry Donskoy who in the Battle of Kulikovo crushed the Crimean temnik of Mamaya, then the khan Uzbek especially could not forgive to Mikhail of Tver of a shame of defeat of the Tatar army in fight at the village of Bortenev. Over Tver clouds began to be condensed.

To take away threat from the city, in 1318 Mikhail of Tver goes to the Horde for explanations with the khan Uzbek. Boyars, sons dissuaded the prince, but he, according to the legend, answered them so: “If I do not go, then my ancestral lands in a polona will be and the great number of Christians is killed, it is necessary to die sometime whether then it is better to put the soul for many souls now“. After cruel and long tortures the prince Mikhail Yaroslavich was killed in the Horde. Mikhail of Tver`s hopes to save Tver from disorder were not fated to come true. Soon the tragic lot of the prince Mikhail Yaroslavich will be shared by his son and the grandson, and the Moscow prince Ivan Kalita a name of the khan will bring order to Tver...

In days of the Shemyakinsky distemper in Moscow cruel fight for a grand-ducal throne between Dmitry Donskoy`s son Yury Dmitriyevichem and Dmitry Donskoy`s grandson Vasily Vasilyevich began. (The distemper received the name by name one of sons Yury Dmitriyevich - Dmitry Shemyaki who wished for himself more power). When Moscow which is torn apart by intestine wars was on the decline, there is a short process of an eminence of the Tver principality. “The word of the monk Thomas“ glorifies the Tver prince Boris Aleksandrovich as “the autocratic sovereign“, worthy to rise at the head of all Russian land. There will pass a little time and Vasily Temny`s son, having become the Sovereign vseya to Russia Ivan III, will abolish the Tver principality, and guardsmen of his grandson will destroy also a shadow of greatness of Tver. However exactly here, on the Tver earth, in Staritsa, in the city founded by the prince Mikhail of Tver, Ivan the Terrible will accept the Pope`s ambassador. Why? It is only possible to guess...

Within many subtatar years Tver and Moscow rigidly argued with each other for the right to carry out the same in general program. Defeat of Tver in this fight was caused by confluence of a number of factors. But the idea of collecting of Russian lands and idea of autocracy were born on the Tver earth, and these ideas did not decay.

We are not fated to know, the Russian history as if developed if won against Tver. It is only possible to tell that it would be other history, perhaps, with smaller influence of a tatarshchina.