Biological balance in an aquarium. What is it?
the Most important factor of normal functioning of an aquarium are biological balance. What is understood as it and as it looks actually?
If water in your aquarium crystal-clear, plants magnificent and juicy, soil pure, without organic chemistry congestion, are absent brown and green seaweed, and small fishes with the straightened fins quickly drive on an aquarium - in your aquarium biological balance was established what and I congratulate you on.
Understand a state as biological balance Akwa - systems at which as a result of biological and chemical reactions waste products and the food remains manage to decay and be acquired, without causing negative reaction of live hydrobionts (fishes, plants, mollusks).
Probably, a little bit complicated. I will try more simply.
The aquarium, except fishes and plants, is inhabited by small protozoa, worms, mushrooms, seaweed, bacteria. All organisms are interconnected. Plants, also as well as fishes, breathe oxygen, but on light develop it much more, than absorb, and thanks to it water is saturated with oxygen. For this reason between fishes and plants there has to be a balance. Therefore, the aquarium overpopulation fishes can cause a lack of oxygen that in turn will break biological balance.
The forage which is not eaten by fishes and waste products of fishes and plants settle on soil. In a benthonic layer of aquarian soil bacteria and microorganisms which process the above-stated forage and products on the soluble connections suitable for food of plants develop. So balance between fishes and microorganisms is established. From this it follows that surplus of a forage and at the wrong time the remote begun to rot leaves of plants are capable to do much harm significantly to your aquarium. If suddenly water in an aquarium dimmed, then it means that benthonic bacteria are not able to process excessive organic chemistry. Simply surplus of a forage led to uncontrolled reproduction of a paramecium caudatum, or as aquarians speak, “infusorial flash“.
A major factor of biological balance is normal feeding of fishes. There is such law: it is better to underfeed fish, than to give an excess forage . The uneaten forage settles at the bottom of an aquarium and causes development of putrefactive bacteria, creating adverse conditions for the main population of an aquarium.
In an aquarium significantly influences a condition of biological balance also redoks - potential
(okislitelno - recovery potential). This indicator is connected with the level of impurity of aquarian water organic substances, and also with age an aquarium. Succession of an aquarium as difficult biological system is closely connected with concept redoks - potential (in other words, its natural development). Recently established aquarium is characterized by high values redoks - potential, in such aquarium very good growth of dlinnostebelny, fine-leaved plants, for example, such as is observed of a kabomba . Then, in process of aging of an aquarium, it redoks - potential decreases a little, and the active growth of many types of ekhinodorus is observed . Subsequently redoks - potential becomes absolutely low, and as the indicator of it good growth kriptokorin can serve, for example, .
It is possible to support redoks - potential at the certain level by regular care of an aquarium, cleaning of soil, water substitution etc. Strongly increases redoks - potential application of ultra-violet irradiators and ozonizers of aquarian water.
Rather strong impact on biological balance is exerted both to by the level of illumination and its spectral structure . If your aquarium began to become covered violently by a brown or green raid - it demonstrates the wrong lighting: insufficient lighting leads to reproduction of brown seaweed, and surplus - to reproduction of green seaweed. For determination of power of sources of artificial light it is necessary to increase the recommended power by the volume of an aquarium, expressed in liters. It is known that luminous efficiency of luminescent lamps is approximately three times more, than at glow lamps at the identical power. Therefore when using luminescent lamps on 1 l of volume 0,4 - 0,5 W are necessary, and when using glow lamps (krypton) 1,2-1,5 W on 1 l of volume are required.
If illumination of an aquarium is not enough by quantity or on intensity, then plants will look weak, their leaves will get faintly - green or yellowish color. At some plants leaves will be smaller, than in normal conditions, and stalk length between leaves (interstice) will increase. Will be closer to a light source of an interstice to become shorter, and leaves - massivny.
One of the most important parameters of water is its hydrogen indicator - rn (kislotno - alkaline balance) . Shift of this indicator in this or that party can also break biological balance in your aquarium. If fishes are in water with critical values rn (strongly alkaline or very sour), then they observe chemical burns of gills, mucous membranes and integuments. There are serious violations of breath and a metabolism, protective properties of an organism considerably decrease. As a result of a small fish can die from - for chemical a burn or from some other diseases which immediately affect fishes with weak immunity.
In fabrics of plants shifts rn lead to delay of photosynthesis and other biochemical processes, and at critical values the necrosis of fabrics and disintegration of a chlorophyll is observed. It is necessary to highlight that small fishes and plants can get a severe stress, chemical damages and weaken considerably even at very short-term fluctuations of level rn in an aquarium. Therefore it is necessary to aspire to that aquarian water had the acidity optimum for hydrobionts.