Alcohol: well, how many it is possible to argue? De vino veritas!
we Will leave alone nice Philip Aureol Teofrast Bombast`s spirit a background - Gogengeyma famous as Paracelsus, and we will take for granted that there are neither absolutely harmful, nor absolutely useful things in the nature. Alcohol, the eternal satellite of mankind, was and is sung, and damned by classics. There are whole volumes of sayings for and against this simple organic substance - ethyl alcohol.
We will consider objectively alcohol as... and how? Let`s tell how “substance which being entered into an organism of a guinea pig, makes the thesis“.
On physiological action it is typical drug, but unlike other drugs, it is very powerful power source (normal, measured in calories or joules) and a stimulator of some functions of an organism.
The metabolism (transformation) of alcohol in an organism is simple. Having soaked up
in blood, it gets into a liver where under the influence of enzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase turns into ethyl aldehyde (substance very harmful), and further into acetate. The last unites to coenzyme A and in the form of the “acetyl-coenzyme A“ complex the cycle where breaks up to carbon dioxide and water arrives in aerobic (with oxygen participation). Process is followed by allocation of energy which right there accumulates in makroergichesky communications of molecules ATP, and then is spent for needs of an organism. It is extremely simplified scheme.
As most of all we are interested in effect of alcohol on mentality, will note that hit of alcohol and intermediate products of its exchange in a brain leads to violation of balance of several neuromediators responsible for an emotional state, first of all serotonin and noradrenaline. Depending on in what party this balance will change, the euphoric or depressive effect depends.
In response to such intervention compensatory mechanisms turn on. And here - that the organism gets to a trap.
Regular intake of the alcohol having “eyforiziruyushchy“ effect leads to reduction of synthesis of noradrenaline (the brain strives for balance) therefore for lack of alcohol there is a relative excess of serotonin - a depression mediator. The person feels disgustingly, accepts alcohol, restoring composure. The organism kompensatorno reduces synthesis of noradrenaline and increases serotonin synthesis...
Everything, the vicious circle became isolated.
The person became dependent on drug - alcoholism was created. So - in a general view and, I repeat, extremely simply.
We will wrap up a medal other party.
We will ask a question: why the mankind did not leave such rubbish, and opposite, art of production of alcoholic drinks built in a cult, idolized?
Gods of winemaking took a place of honor in pantheons of the most different people, wine is used in religious rituals of modern religions.
So, positive properties of alcohol .
At internal application alcohol has tranquilizing effect (i.e. reduces feeling of alarm). This effect is negative if it is about driving of the tipsy car, but is positive if it is about stressful or, moreover, the psychoinjuring situation. The ethanol applied once in number of 20 - 40 ml promotes quieter assessment of the events and, as a result, rescues from further treatment at the psychotherapist. This effect causes a possibility of use of alcohol as of antishock means .
Alcohol exerts impact on thermoregulation : it oppresses mechanisms of maintenance of a tone of peripheral vessels and, leading to their expansion, strengthens a thermolysis. Thereof on cold it promotes loss of heat and, as a result, fast approach of overcooling and strengthening of frostbites, respectively, alcohol intake on a frost is undesirable .
However everything changes when the victim with overcooling or frostbite gets to heat: in the first case alcohol intake not only will cause subjective feeling of heat, but also powerful heat production (due to biological oxidation of one gram of alcohol 7,6 kcal are allocated that it is much bigger, than at oxidation of carbohydrates, and it is only a little less, than at oxidation of fats; besides alcohol begins to be oxidized much quicker than other nutrients). In case of frostbite its vasodilating effect leads to the fact that fabrics begin to get warm from within, without suffering at the same time from a lack of oxygen.
Strong alcohol (40%) oppresses secretion of glands of a stomach and reduces activity of digestive enzymes. 50 grams of vodka without snack can stop for a long time heartburn . Moreover, at the same time release of slime amplifies - the stomach becomes more protected from acid influence. Not without reason gastroenterologists do not forbid patients with an ulcer to take hard liquors moderately. However it is necessary to remember that in lower concentration, alcohol causes a boomerang effect - wines, liqueurs and, especially, beer having stomach ulcer are contraindicated.
Ethanol also of strengthens effect of anesthetics of preparations including not narcotic, for example, analginum. And in itself - a very good analgetic.
But is strictly forbidden to accept it together with aspirin or other salycylates - risk of deadly gastric bleeding!
As you can see, Paracelsus`s thesis works to the full extent.
Still we argued on pure alcohol - ethanol, per se.
Meanwhile wine is a balanced ensemble from a set (hundreds!) components. Here both vitamins, and minerals, and various biologically active agents, aromatic components. Taste and aroma of kind wine (derivatives, other from it, deserve separate conversation) bring truly esthetic pleasure.
Here the vinoterapiya - treatment by wine is based on these positive moments. It is far from my specialty, there is nothing to tell me, but there is a lot of literature, at desire it is possible to study a question as much as deeply.
But we will return to an alcoholism problem.
Activity of the enzymes decomposing alcohol, and sensitivity of nervous system to effect of alcohol and its metabolites, efficiency of mechanisms of a homeostasis - all this has both racial, and intra racial, especially individual distinctions.
It should be noted one more moment - activization of hepatic enzymes (accustoming with decrease in efficiency of drugs also is based on this phenomenon): they become capable to process more alcohol in unit of time over time.
We will lower several intermediate moments.
Alcoholic beverages can be taken without harm and with advantage for a body and soul at observance of simple conditions:
the Small doses which are not causing noticeable change of behavior. Here it is better not to rely on own opinion.
Irregular intervals between doses.
Only the quality drinks which are obviously not containing harmful additives.
Supervision over effect of single reception. If tolerance grows (the high dose is transferred easier) is a signal of FEET!
tolerance Increase - the first phase of alcoholism.
rather psychosomatic disease Is considered to be alcoholism as a mental disease, but it: sincerely - corporal, unlike schizophrenia, for example. The mechanism of its development is stated above.
Tolerance increases due to the strengthened development by hepatocytes (cells of a liver) of the enzymes necessary for alcohol processing. The organism works very economically, in vain does not synthesize any molecule. The termination of receipt of a substratum (ethanol in our case) will lead to decrease in level of enzymes and reduction of tolerance.
At this time the brain is not affected so yet to lose self-checking.
I do not want to look the propagandist of alcoholism at all. If there are fears, the best position - “Leave from a sin!“
can agitate Me as much as necessary for mountaineering delights. I trust! But I will not get into mountains: thick, clumsy I am also afraid of height.
Often ask a question: how many to drink in grams of vodka and how it is frequent?
It is considered i that one “drink“ (50 ml of vodka or 150 ml of wine) in day prolongs life. At a long feast one “drink“ an hour does not do harm as approximately with such speed alcohol is processed by an organism.
But itself I do not drink vodka. What in it good? Neither taste, nor aroma, and intoxication I hate - a mean state. Another matter - good wine, brandy; it is possible and pogurmanstvovat.
In conclusion to me remains only to join Alexey Maksimovich Gorky`s toast: “Yes people who are able to do wine are well and bring with it solar energy in souls of people“ .