Rus Articles Journal

Rest in the Crimea in the 19th century: how it was?

the Black Sea long time reckoned exotic with its waves and reefs and dangerous. However as sea bathings and solar bathtubs won the status curative, more and more people began to come to rest to the Crimea.

Up to 60 - x years of the 19th century on beaches it was accepted to float naked. Later swimming baths - wooden pavilions with separate cabins entered the use. In these cabins changed clothes in swimwears and directly from them went down in the sea. Where swimming baths were not, arranged private beaches, and sites not only for women and men, but also for bathing of horses were allocated.

Usually swimming baths stood on thin piles at the coast. In those places where the sea was small, they floated on an anchor. Floating swimming baths were supplied with small wheels that they were convenient to be extended on the coast during a storm. At the beginning of the 20th century of swimming baths there was already great variety, the largest of them had own names - for example, “Crystal waters“ in Sevastopol. By the way, they also gave the name to the cape Crystal on which were located.

To attract health-resort visitors, each owner sought to enter additional services - buffet, a hairdressing salon, a reading room with fresh newspapers, a shower, massage, the platform overlooking the sea on structure top. At some swimming baths there were even heat sea baths - for those to whom water in the sea seemed cold. From administration the only requirement was exposed: “swimwears are obligatory for persons of both sexes over 10 years“. Bathing suits of those times were very bulky and inconvenient, and, probably, many strove to neglect them.

To the Crimea went not only to have a rest, but also to restore health. However, in the 19th century of special medical institutions for health-resort visitors did not exist yet - as the contemporary wrote, “patients were provided to themselves, carrying out medical councils without any medical supervision“. The first in the Crimea (and in Russia) a health resort opened in Yevpatoria in 1905 - m. It was called “Seaside sanatorium“. It is curious that “sanatoria“ not the physician, but the artist - the academician of painting N. D. Losev was a founder. Having arthritis, he visited many European resorts and as a result decided to construct own sanatorium in the Crimea. “Seaside sanatorium“ accepted 600-700 people a year. Patients took sea, solar and sand bathtubs, did gymnastics. To their services there were mud baths and a special electric office where treated by means of electric field - was considered that it calms nerves, reduces pressure, accelerates healing of wounds.

At the Soviet power under sanatoria and health resorts began to use as it was told in the decree, “palaces of the former tsars and grand dukes“. In the imperial palace in Livadiya the first-ever sanatorium for peasants opened. To receive medical treatment here sent the poorest, and first did it forcibly - people did not understand that the word “sanatorium“ means, and thought that they are sent whether into exile, whether on the front. Leaving, cried and said goodbye to the family forever. In May, 1925 - go in Livadiya of profit the first 220 vacationers - them dressed in white pajamas, lodged in imperial apartments and fed in the imperial dining room. The country sanatorium became sight of the Crimea, it was shown to few foreign tourists. Sharing impressions about Livadiya`s visit at the beginning of 30 - x, the German worker wrote: “… today we, proletarians, stand on “Rasputin`s ladder“ with one peasant who followed the cart with manure several days ago. [...] They can be treated, enjoy air, the sun, aroma of flowers and orange plantations here“.

And a little more on pre-revolutionary features of the Crimean rest. It is considered that the velvet season is called so because before the richest, dressed in a velvet public came to the Crimea in August - September. The public is simpler - teachers, employees, students - had a rest in resorts of the peninsula from June to August when the prices were lower. This season was called print.