Rus Articles Journal

How the soul is arranged? And Freud knows it... Part 2

Of course, the theory changed, specified and reconsidered over time. In the beginning the topographical model of the personality allocating some kind of levels of consciousness was created: unconscious (which is not realized in principle or is realized after overcoming of resistance) conscious and preconscious (what is not realized now, but can be realized).

Then, in structural model, Freud allocated to three components :

1. It - the congenital and acquired inclinations and instincts. “… dark, inaccessible part of our personality … at the limit It is opened for somatic, incorporating instinctive requirements from there... Thanks to inclinations It is filled with energy, but has no organization...“

2. I - “am part It which was altered under direct influence of the outside world... I represent what it is possible to call reason or common sense … I is similar to the rider who has to constrain a superior force of a horse, with that difference that the equestrian tries to make it by means of the own force whereas I use for this purpose borrowed (at It) forces“.

3. Over - I - the structure which is realizing control, including system of values and social installations.

It is present initially, “submits“ to the principle of pleasure, his instinctive requirements demand immediate satisfaction. Over - I am formed under the influence of society (first of all parents) and is also focused not on reality, and on a certain ideal. I - seek to realize needs for socially acceptable context, being guided by the principle of reality. On the other hand, I am under pressure from outside Over - I which requirements can not have nothing in common with reality. Thus, I am under pressure of inclinations, conscience and the outside world. If contradictions are too big, there is “a flight in an illness“, or satisfaction of requirements It or Over - I in the indirect, symbolical way, through formation of neurotic symptoms.

Other concept is connected with studying of instincts . In the beginning Freud allocated a sexual instinct as driving forces of the personality and instincts Ya. Agressivnost was considered as a component of a sexual inclination. Later Freud reconsidered the views, having offered a new dichotomy of an instinct of life of the Eros and an instinct of death of Thanatos (“On that side of the principle of pleasure“, 1920; “I and It“, 1923).

The economic model of mentality describes distribution, use and transformation of vital energy. Freud considered as a power source sexual instincts. Without having an opportunity to be realized “for the intended purpose“, energy of a libido “comes off“ a source and goes for these or those functions. At the same time energy cannot disappear, and the impulses and instincts which are forced out in unconscious do not disappear anywhere. Energy can be taken away from one mental instances or processes and to go to others, can collect or communicate in any desire, thought, a habit.

The concept of the psychosexual development which is taking place a number of stages became an important component of the theory of Freud . At their successful passing the “normal“ type of the personality capable to reach a full-fledged discharge of a libido in sexual intercourse is formed. Considering more widely, this is the full-fledged personality capable to mature love without experience of the internal conflicts. Violations at each stage of development form these or those personal violations, and is frequent - a certain type of character. Developed this theory Century. Raich, and after A. Louen, and she deserves separate conversation.

At 20-30 - e years Freud writes a number of the works devoted to religion (“The future of one illusion“, 1927), to relationship of the personality and society (“Discontent with culture“, 1929), finishes “Lectures on introduction to psychoanalysis“ (1917, 1933).

And here one more opening in which Freud was directly involved. In 1880 - x years the ophthalmologist Karl Koler who is taking part in researches opens anesthetic effect of cocaine on mucous membranes, having opened local anesthesia . Freud who was actively investigating effect of cocaine passed by this opening (there is a probability that Freud`s departure was the cause, from - for what he did not make experiments itself). But, apparently, Freud possessed idea of replacement therapy in narcology: he offered and used cocaine at treatment of alcoholic and morfinovy dependence.

Alas, at the same time he popularized cocaine in Europe, being convinced of its harmlessness. From a song of words you will not throw out, Freud`s articles about advantage of cocaine played a considerable role in its distribution. However, drug addiction in Europe already existed, and the pig will find dirt, and promoting not of the heaviest drug not too spoiled scientific reputation of Freud. And he soon realized that cocaine bears not only advantage. What role in great opening of Freud was played by his hobby for cocaine, it is necessary only to guess.

Those who consider Freud`s theories as reflection of its own complexes are for certain right (at least partly). Here it would only be quite good to read Freud`s works. And there other party of his personality is reflected: the original scientist, all life who was looking for truth. And very personally belonging to happening to his patients. And as treat Freud`s identity, on his feet there were generations of the brilliant scientists who were developing and often “correcting“ the psychoanalytic theory.

And nobody else is impossible with such basis to call the father of modern psychotherapy. The essence of all searches of Freud is captured best of all by his credo: “Where there was It, has to be I“ .