Rus Articles Journal

Nanochemistry - a dimensional limit of chemistry?

It seems that yes. Nanochemistry - chemistry and technology of objects, which sizes about 10 - 9 m (clusters of atoms, macromolecules). Nanotechnologies are the technologies operating with sizes about a nanometer. Therefore transition from “micro“ to “nano“ is a high-quality transition from manipulation with substance to manipulation with separate groups of atoms .

The carbon nanotube two microns long and nanometer with a diameter of 1,2 represents a graphite leaf in atom thickness which will be curtailed into the cylinder. Molecules of oxide of a fulleren C60O in usual conditions connect in branched polymer. However when carrying out this reaction in a nanotube, molecules formed a straight line because walls of a test tube did not allow them to branch.

So far as concerns development of nanotechnologies, three directions mean: production of electronic schemes (including volume) with active elements, the sizes comparable with sizes of molecules and atoms; development and production of nanocars; manipulation with separate atoms and molecules and assembly of macroobjects from them.

Developments in these directions are conducted for a long time. In 1981 the tunnel microscope allowing to transfer separate atoms was created. Tunnel effect - the quantum phenomenon of penetration of a microparticle from one classically available area of the movement in another, separated from the first by a potential barrier. A basis of the invented microscope is very sharp needle sliding over the studied surface with a gap less than one nanometer. At the same time electrons from an edge of a needle tunnel through this gap in a substrate. However, except research of a surface, creation of new type of microscopes opened essentially new way of formation of elements of the nanometer sizes. Unique results on movement of groups of atoms, their removal and sedimentation in the set point, and also local stimulation of chemical processes were received. There is a photo of the inscriptions received by separate atoms.

The nanochemistry also includes synthesis of nanodisperse substances and materials, regulation of chemical transformations of bodies of the nanometer size, prevention of chemical degradation of nanostructures, ways of treatment of diseases with use of nanocrystals.

The directions of researches in nanochemistry :

Development of methods of assembly of large molecules from atoms by means of nanomanipulators; studying of intramolecular regroupings of atoms at mechanical, electric and magnetic influences.

Synthesis of nanostructures in streams of supercritical liquid; development of ways of the directed assembly of nanocrystals with formation of fractal, frame, tubular and column nanostructures.

Development of the theory of the physicist - chemical evolution of ultradisperse substances and nanostructures.

Receiving new nanocatalysts for the chemical and petrochemical industry; studying of the mechanism of catalytic reactions on nanocrystals.

Studying of mechanisms of nanocrystallization in porous environments in acoustic fields; synthesis of nanostructures in biological fabrics; development of ways of treatment of diseases by formation of nanostructures in fabrics with pathology. the Institute of nanotechnologies of the international fund of conversion (Moscow) Works with

. It is possible to esteem: Sergeyev G. B. Nanochemistry. M.: Prod. - in MSU, 2003.