How the cities change names? Istanbul and New - York
Historical memory of the people is stored in the most different things - myths, memoirs, songs, names, names … And names of the cities are not an exception. At the same time history quite often very roughly interferes in geographical toponymics - old names are forgotten, replaced new, and quite often and arise from the dead.
“Fever“ of renamings is usually inseparably linked with the rough periods of history when life of the people and the country radically changes. What “change of names“ testifies to? Whether she is always acquitted?
“The threefold name is born by the city, the Fourth name - Rome...“ (A. Kuzmin)as in a mirror was reflected by
In names of this city standing on the intersection of Europe and Asia all its history. It is unlikely the first residents of the Ancient Greek settlement of Vizanty (called by the name of his mythical founder) guessed that in 330 he will be fated to become the capital of the mighty Roman Empire stretched from Herculean pillars to Asia Minor. Huge extent pushed the emperor Konstantin to choose the new capital closer to the periphery. And though Konstantin called the residence at the Bosphorus Strait “New Rome“, this name did not get accustomed, and the city was christened soon Constantinople. As well as it is necessary to the capital, it right there became one of the largest and most beautiful cities of the world.
There were years. The Roman Empire was divided on Western and East, and in the 5th century “the First Rome“ fell under the pressure of barbarians. However, there was “Second Rome“. And though it is accepted to call the country Byzantium, its inhabitants considered themselves romeyam - true successors of the ancient empire. The Eastern Roman Empire prospered 9 more centuries. The first serious blow to it was struck by the crusaders who solved during 4 - go a crusade instead of Muslim Jerusalem to take, rob and burn the city of the “brothers in Christ“. However soon Constantinople was beaten off by Byzantines and there were two more centuries until finally fell before Ottoman Turks in 1453
Turks, without hesitation, turned the Temple of St. Sofia into the mosque, and the city into the capital of the new empire - Ottoman. Officially the name did not begin to be changed, but among themselves that hour christened Constantinople Istanbul. From where the floor “Istanbul“ was taken - there are two versions. The first - that so Turks understood words of the Byzantines running under protection of city walls (on the question “Where You Go“, those answered on - Greek “An ace ten to Pauline“, i.e. “To the city“). According to other version - this word “Constantinople“ which is simply distorted by Turks on the of manners (at first cleaned the unusual termination - there was “Konstanbul“, and then and an unloved congestion of concordants at the beginning).
After formation of the Republic of Turkey the nationalist Ataturk transferred the capital to Ankara, and Constantinople already officially declared Istanbul (our way, Istanbul).
It is no secret that imperial Russia considering itself by “the Third Rome“ long dreamed to return to a Christianity bosom “Rome the Second“. Also they work well it during Russko - the Turkish war, the city Tsaregrad (on whose gate as you remember, beat the board still “prophetic Oleg“) would find an ancient Russian nickname, and his destiny would be absolutely another.
To finish the story about one city and smoothly the known song will help to pass to the following to us “Istanbul (Not Constantinople)“ which for the first time is written down in 1953. Four Lads group.
“In due time Istanbul was called Constantinople,
But now - now it is Istanbul, but not Constantinople.
... Any Constantinople little girl
On most - that business lives not in Constantinople, and in Istanbul,
So if you agreed to meet it in Constantinople,
That she will wait for you not in Constantinople namely that in Istanbul!
Yes what to say about Constantinople,
Even if New - York once was called New - Amsterdam …“
“I want to wake up in the city which never sleeps...“ (F. Ebb)
Not all, probably, know that future city of skyscrapers and “the American dream“ was founded at all not by British, but Dutches. At the beginning of the 17th century the Dutch settlers redeemed from Indians the island Manhattan where they founded the settlement called in honor of the capital of the homeland by New Amsterdam. However it carried this name not for long - in 1664 the city is occupied by British and right there rename into honor of the initiator of this military operation - the king James II, the duke of York. Dutches managed to win for a while the city, and this time they called it New - Oranzh. The new name did not help, the city fell into hands of British again and finally there was New - York.
Located near east coast, New - York was the real gate in the New World for emigrants from Old. At first - for Germans and Irish, then - for Italians and Jews and after the white population rushed back from noisy New - York to suburbs - for the black, Latinos and Asians. Already at the beginning of the existence the city promptly overtook on the population of last “leader“ - Philadelphia - and still is the largest city of the USA. And from Dutches of New Amsterdam America had only a name of their Saint - nowadays known as Santa - Claus.
As for renaming of our cities, we will talk about them next time.