How the soul is arranged? And Freud knows it... Part 1
6 of May, 1856 Siegmund Freud who became, in fact, the founder of modern psychology was born. More precisely, deep psychotherapy. Its main achievement often call opening unconscious. It not quite so.
The idea that the part of maintenance of mentality is not realized, but, nevertheless, exerts impact on our behavior, was not at that time such new. There were also attempts to influence on hidden in subconsciousness with the medical purpose - at treatment of hysteria by means of hypnosis.
There began Freud as the neurologist that gave him the chance to observe various cases of hysteria. Actually, at treatment of hysteria also the catharsis method (created by the senior companion Frejda - Y. Breyer), and a psychoanalysis method was for the first time applied. Then also communication of hysterical symptoms with the psychoinjuring situations which happened in the past was noticed.
Breyer the first began to apply what made a psychoanalysis method essence later: pushed patients in a hypnotic trance to remember the situations which led to developing of a disease. It was noticed that in some cases it leads to weakening of symptoms. Young Freud also began to use it.
Of course, about it the set of jokes and stories goes, and it is now hard to define the truth. Someone writes that he was just bad hypnotist and therefore looked for, than to replace hypnosis. But the fact that the katartichesky method applied under hypnosis not always worked as it is necessary, and results were usually unstable. Hypnosis allowed to bypass resistance, but not to get rid of it. Naturally, not overcome psychological protection promoted replacement, and the patient came back to a habitual disease state again. Freud began to stimulate memoirs in the awake state, trying to achieve understanding by patients of the psychoinjuring situation.
In general, people understood long ago that behind many casual actions, absolutely real thoughts and intentions stand reservations, mistakes. But Freud the first decided to use this material in psychotherapy. He considered that nothing in our acts is casual that even wrong actions are determined by the hidden contents of unconscious. The method of free associations when the client tells everything that comes to its mind - it is a way to partly bypass psychological protection which interfere with understanding.
In practice the patient, lying on a couch, told and described everything that came to mind. The doctor sat out of sight of the patient, almost without being implicated, only inducing to speak. The thoughts which are shown at the same time, emotions also gave material, necessary for the analysis. On it the doctor draws conclusions about the feelings and motives hidden in unconscious. Freud the first began to investigate casual and wrong actions, reservations, slips and so forth. (research “Psychopathology of Ordinary Life“, 1901)
And of course, Freud the first realized a possibility of the scientific analysis of dreams - “the imperial road to unconscious“ (“Interpretation of dreams“, 1900).
It should be noted magnificent work “Wit and its relation to unconscious“ (1905) where on a huge number of jokes and jokes operation of the same mechanisms is shown that dreams and wrong actions create.
But one it was obvious insufficiently. Creation of the theory describing the principles and mechanisms of work of mentality was the greatest merit of Freud. That as well as why it is forced out from consciousness; where the forced-out motives “disappear“; as extramental influences our behavior; as there are neurotic symptoms - all this, in fact, formed the basis of modern psychotherapy. And psychotherapy deep, directed not only on simplification of separate neurotic symptoms, but also on serious personal changes. And even work on separate symptoms gave far bigger, psychoanalytic treatment means increase in sensibleness.
First Freud considered that rather just to remember the situation which provoked development of symptoms. It became clear later that it is not enough just intellectual recall that last situation needs to be worried emotionally again. In fact, the patient had to recreate a past situation, endure it, releasing energy of the emotions blocked once.
Special attention to the sexual sphere, search of the reasons of neurosises in psychosexual experiences often cause irony. And here it is quite good to remember in what time Freud worked. Over and over again facing the similar reasons of neurotic frustration, it had courage to openly argue the point of view. Unless it does not do it credit as to the scientist?
Yes, later many reasons of neurosises were reconsidered (especially by the neofreudians who shifted focus to the sociocultural sphere). But in - the first, neofreudians worked in other culture (American, but not European). In - the second, they “stood on shoulders of the titan“, given understanding of how sincere processes (and it are organized and remained a psychoanalysis basis).