Power industry. Present.
Having worked rather long time at the enterprises of various fields of activity (machine-building, chemical, metallurgical), in the services which are responsible for operation and repair of electric equipment, I can tell with confidence that without understanding and revision of the value of power supply, value of electric equipment in life of the enterprise we will not be able to come to the level of the European producers in many parameters. We will not be able to reach that quality of production at the low prices of it, that energy saving and level of ecology at our not effective use of the electric power and the equipment on it working.
At all these enterprises can note in respect of power industry one - almost total absence of modernization:
• the existing distributive
lines • distributive electroboards and control panels
• introduction at least, some automation
At many enterprises remained the battery of static condensers (BSC), but in most cases they are not used. Not it is clear, whether power engineering specialists do not know what with them to do how to serve, whether forgot what they are intended for.
At some enterprises at installation of new technological lines are developed projects with use of BSK, the equipment is bought, to be made installation, but besides it is not used as the equipment new with use of electronics, controllers - such things still frighten personnel of electrotechnical services. For those who do not know what effect installations of batteries of static condensers have
on a power supply system we will remind:
• Installation of condensers for increase of power factor allows consumers to reduce costs of the electric power due to maintenance of level of consumption of jet power below the value coordinated (under the contract) with the supplier of the electric power.
• High power factor allows to optimize all components of system, that is to avoid overestimate of face values of a certain equipment.
• Decrease in losses (P, kW) in conductors
• Decrease in losses of tension
• Increase of capacity
One more sore subject for many enterprises - use of the automatic inclusion of a reserve (AIR). It is more true to tell - not use. Operation of two transformer substations (TP, KTP) with the absent or faulty AVR can lead to serious consequences and heavy losses. Use of cases of automatic inclusion of a reserve on some sites of technological lines will help to avoid mass marriage of products, and sometimes a traumatism exception (for example if from a board of AVR lines of lighting are powered).
One of the essential existing omissions in power industry is use of the distributive and feeding electric networks without calculation of selectivity of protective devices. The main thing how to be said that it was disconnected from short circuit and in what period, and what device will be switched-off not important.
But are often disconnected introduction automatic machines instead of departing that respectively leads to shutdown of all consumers. When it occurs losses are much more considerable, than if calculation of selectivity and replacement of protective devices in switchboards was carried out.
Development and deployment of schemes of automation it is possible to achieve considerable economy of the electric power.
to Take over, for example, control of lighting. Installation of twilight relays, relay of the movement will help to save the electric power. It is not so difficult to realize it in the operating systems of power supply. It is enough to establish a small control panel near a switchboard or a board of lighting, or to add several switches to the existing board, to stretch several meters of an electrical wiring, to install the relay and everything, automatic control of lighting is ready.
Use of frequency converters and devices of smooth launch of electric motors helps to save due to reduction of face values of protective and switching devices, reduction of section of conductors. Also at collaboration of the frequency converter and an electric motor there is a reduction of consumption of electric energy.
So, for example, when using in systems of ventilation or water supply can regulate smoothly streams of air or water, depending on needs, but not breakthroughs as when using single-speed electric motors and systems of shiber and valves. it is much simpler to
to use Converters of frequency in systems of automation.
But from - for shortages of qualified personnel which has to serve subsequently them do not even put such systems in projects. Both again constructed shops, and sites begin to work by the same principles and with the same equipment, as well as decades ago.
Use of controllers, logical relays, various sensors in control systems excludes mistakes (a so-called human factor). It of course does not mean that the service personnel need to be reduced at automation introduction, they need to be redistributed on other sites with statement of new functions and tasks. Due to automation it is necessary to carry out expansion of productions.
In this article considered only small part of problems in power industry which it is possible and it is necessary to begin to solve now. Without big expenses some problems can be excluded at a stage of development of the project. I suggest the power engineering specialists responsible for electrical facilities to reconsider the relation to the entrusted equipment, distributive networks, t. to without it not to construct really power effective and eco-friendly enterprises.