Without what the aquarium will not work? In the sixth century B.C. the first aquarian small fishes (goldfishes) ancient rich Chinese contained
in the porcelain vases decorated with a lotus flower. Poor peasants for the favourites spun from rice straw of a basket, such dense that from them water did not pour out. These first aquariums were opaque and it was possible to watch them only from above.
At excavation of the ancient cities of Egypt to Entre Rios flat stone bowls - pools in palaces were found. It is quite possible that these pools held fishes from Nile, the Tiger and Euphrates.
Thanks to Cicero! From it we know that rich Romans were fond of keeping of fishes in special pools which were called pistsina (from Latin - fish). And not just supported fishes to serve them to a table on feasts, and even Listen to Cicero: It is a shame to look, but others imagine themselves directly in the sky if it the sultanok on call is possible to accustom to come, to accustom to feed them from hands.
These first aquariums were far from perfect. Very often fishes perished in such vessels. Not one hundred years in order that people understood that water, the water temperature, soil, seaweed, lighting, a forage have huge value for keeping of small fishes in bondage was necessary.
Opening of Englishman H. Ward in 1837 became significant opening for aquarium husbandry. He for the first time created an aquarium in that value of this word what it has now. Many scientists claimed that we deal with the closed small world: it is possible to close densely this world in bank, and it will exist in itself, not connected with the outside world.
- Anything similar! - H. Ward declared - the Aquarium is a device, and as any device, it without person, without his thought, without his management is dead .
So what equipment is necessary in an aquarium? And whether it is necessary?
Many beginning aquarians are limited only, in their opinion, to the most necessary equipment, and even ignore it. As a result in their aquariums water constantly muddy, in it some weighed parts, at the bottom of many organic chemistry which, besides, covers also leaves of plants float. It in turn leads to development of seaweed which are absolutely undesirable in an aquarium and as the end result, the small fishes loved by them perish
Goldfishes well feel in an aquarium with the room temperature of 18 25*C. But how to be when you support tropical small fishes? Temperature of their usual habitat higher and averages 24 28*C.
For the majority of tropical fishes water in an aquarium are warmed up by means of heater with a temperature regulator. Why with a temperature regulator? Because air temperature indoors both for days, and for a year considerably changes, and it negatively affects a condition of your pets. Low temperatures are an ideal condition for development of pathogenic microbes. A problem of a temperature regulator - to maintain temperature in the set range.
During heating warm water concentrates in the top layers of an aquarium. The difference between water temperature near a bottom and on a surface even an aquarium averages 5 7*C. Such differences are very harmful to inhabitants of an aquarium. Cold water stands near a bottom, in it harmful gases - products of disintegration of organic chemistry collect. To avoid it, water is mixed by means of compressor . Besides, the compressor saturates water with oxygen which is necessary both for fishes, and plants (though the last and it is allocated, but they also consume it).
During activity inhabitants of an aquarium allocate a lot of organic chemistry which accumulates at the bottom. Benthonic bacteria process it into necessary nutrients for plants. But, as a rule, organic chemistry accumulates much more, than these bacteria can process it. What to do? For these purposes in an aquarium filters are used by . Except the main function - water purification - filters, as well as aerators, mix water in an aquarium, thereby equalize its temperature.
Filters happen internal, external and those which are located over an aquarium. In all types of filters apply a filler to mechanical water purification - sand, a kapron thread - a putanka, foam rubber and other porous materials. Now there are filters which not only clear aquariums of dregs, but at the same time are some kind of regulators of a chemical composition of water. In these filters as the filtering filler use ion-exchange pitch, fragmented peat, absorbent carbon, other materials.
Once a week the filter surely is cleaned and washed.
One of neobkhodimeyshy living conditions is light. Therefore, and the aquarium has to be lit in certain time, and light which spectral structure is close to solar.
How to create the illumination of an aquarium close to natural?
For illumination of an aquarium are used by glow lamps and luminescent lamps, but the best result is yielded by their combination. Light of glow lamps warm, it is yellow - orange tones, it is preferable to many species of plants. It is well acquired by plants and emphasizes bright colors of coloring of tropical fishes and plants. However these lamps possess also shortcomings which serve as restrictions in their use. So the efficiency of these lamps is very low (about 5%), 95% of the consumed energy will be transformed to heat.
Luminescent lamps have rather high efficiency (to 20%) and three times more economically, than usual lamps. Aquarians use lamps which spectral structure of light approximately corresponds solar, with prevalence of blue and red radiation. It is most desirable to apply lamps of TBS and BS. Lamps like LD are almost unsuitable.
When using luminescent lamps on 1 l of volume of an aquarium 0,5 W are necessary 0,4 , and when using glow lamps (krypton) it is required 1,2 1. 5 W.
There now and all. Good luck to you on fine travel to the amazing world of an aquarium!