War of 1812 - go years. Tell - the uncle, not without reason?.
Summer in Russia - busy season. Fight at Kalka is appointed, Kazan should be taken, Poles exasperate, gadflies... In the summer of 1812 - go years, to be exact on June 24, at 2 o`clock in the morning, Napoleon`s troops crossed border of the Russian Empire on the Neman River: the next, Patriotic war began.
The Russian troops were removed from winter quarters in good time, going to fight with the Frenchman - the emperor Alexander I did not create illusions about the enemy and prepared for war. In April it personally went to Vilno to review 1 - y the western army which was ordered by Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay - - Tolly. Together with the emperor in Vilno also troops were dispatched.
From St. Petersburg send Labe - guards the Preobrazhensky Regiment and Labe - Kirasirsky of Her Majesty a regiment. In Gatchina joined them Labe - guards the Egersky regiment reformed in 1806 from the battalion collected on November 9, 1796 from egersky teams Labe - guards of Semyonovsky and Izmaylovsky regiments and from an egersky company of Gatchina troops of Paul I; Labe - the Guards Cossack regiment, as a part of three squadrons Dontsov and one Black Sea, and also a company of artillery. The artillery held a specific place in Gatchina troops. Official date of emergence of artillery in group of Crown Prince Pavel Petrovich it is considered 1786 when from sea artillery 8 privates and 1 unter - the officer were sent to group, “… appointed for storage of the gunpowder sent from Admiralties - boards, and for preparation of caps and cartridges“. August 12, 1792. The artillery team of its Imperial Highness consisting by then of 12 field tools with servants received the name of a company.
On September 4 the same year to Gatchina there arrived the captain Alexey Andreevich Arakcheev, future Minister of War. Underestimated, it is necessary to tell, neither contemporaries, nor descendants. And exactly thanks to organizing abilities of Arakcheev Patriotic war of 1812 was won. The only valuable gift accepted by it during long-term service - the Georgian volost in the Novgorod province. Honest there was a person, rigid to himself, rigid with slovens. Propagandized education in artillery, dismissing lazy and inept officers. And in the military settlements created by it later (that contemptuously was called “arakcheevshchina“) retired soldiers received both housing, and work, medical care and free education to children till 12 years was organized. His imperial henchmen and embezzlers of public funds also did not love for that.
The Egersky teams which formed a basis Labe - guards of the Egersky regiment, it is possible to call without exaggeration by primogenitors of landing troops and marines. Their equipment was facilitated to the utmost: instead of swords bayonets are enclosed in sword belts, heavy grenadierial bags are replaced with lungs mushketersky, tents are selected, laces from sporota hats, epanch (raincoats) are left only to those who will wish. For actions it is ordered to choose places “the most convenient and avantazhneyshy: in the woods, villages, on passes“; “in ambuskada (ambushes) it is silent to lie and to keep silence, having before itself always patrols pedestrian ahead and on the parties“; to the enemy “into the back to fall“; in the woods it was ordered to attack also the strongest opponent as he cannot estimate force of attacking. The huntsman participated in Arkhipelazhsky expedition, on vessels of fleet the column A. Orlov who acted in waters of the Mediterranean Sea during war against Turks in 1769 - 1774. And the foundation to egersky divisions was laid by the count Rumyantsev even during Seven years` war.
Labe - guards Cossack his Majesties a regiment. In November, 1796, after accession to the throne of the Sovereign Emperor Paul I, the Don and Chuguyevsky court Cossack teams, and also Gatchina hussars, made two squadrons again founded Labe - the Hussar Cossack regiment. In 1799 it was most high to have three squadrons poveleno. In 1811 the Guards Black Sea one hundred under team of the army colonel Bursak 2 - go was created, in February, 1812 one hundred arrived to St. Petersburg and was enlisted in Labe - Guards the Cossack regiment 4 - m by a squadron; in only 18 days the regiment went hiking. Cossacks participated in all significant battles of Patriotic war, and on March 19, 1814 the regiment solemnly entered Paris and settled down a camp on the Champs Elysee. Demanding a cup of coffee with croissant, Cossacks shouted at French: “Quickly, quickly!“, therefore the known cafes - a bistro appeared all. Cossacks of a regiment accompanied Napoleon in the reference to Elba Island. And in 60 years, in time russko - the Turkish war 1877 - 1878, at Alexander the Second will, uvidavshy as Cossacks go to attack near Plevna at night, Felix Mendelssohn`s march written in 1842 for the play “Midsummer Night`s Dream“ became march of a regiment.
Labe - Kirasirsky of Her Majesty on a seniority concedes a regiment only to the first kirasirsky regiment in the history of Russia - Minikhova Kirasirskoma to the regiment created in November, 1731. Originally the Germans who arrived with Minikh and Ulrich were officers of a regiment mostly. From the invited foreigners the most known - Karl Friedrich Ijeronim von Muenchgausen. Yes, that, “the baron glorified for the whole world - the author“. In 1739 - m it arrived to a regiment a cornet, and in 1754 - the m was dismissed in the captain`s rank. In 1744 the baron ordered the guard of honor meeting the bride of Crown Prince Pyotr Fyodorovich in Riga - the princess Sofia - to Augustus - to Frederik von Anchalt - Tserbst - Dornburg, future empress Catherine II.
This regiment of a heavy cavalry had the nickname “Gatchina cuirassiers“, in the place of the main dislocation; On April 26, 1918 by the resolution of the Petrograd labor commune Labe - cuirassiers were disbanded. In 1920 - m the last 25 officers of a regiment emigrated. In the building of regimental barracks of cuirassiers in Gatchina takes place Central voyenno today - sea archive of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.
Labe - guards Preobrazhenskiy his Majesties a regiment - the oldest, most elite regiment of guard of Russia. It was created by Peter I in 1691 in the village of Preobrazhenskoye on the bank of the river of Yauza (nowadays Moscow municipal district of Preobrazhenskoye, between Sokolniki and Izmailovo) from which received the name. During war with Swedes, in fight at Narva in 1700, the firmness guardsmen of Preobrazhenskoye and Semyonovsky of regiments saved the Russian army from elimination. Meaning that preobrazhenets and semyonovets stood knee-deep in blood, red stockings that allows them the first in Russia to call red - guardsmen were added to their regimentals.
Voyenno - the historical club “Krasnogvardeysk“ of the Gatchina Palace of youth carries regularly out historical reconstruction of various events of our homeland. On April 21, 2012, in commemoration of the two-hundredth anniversary of departure of Gatchina troops in 1812 in Vilno on war with Napoleon, on a parade-ground near the Big Gatchina palace the next parade of the military units participating in the main, decisive battle of Patriotic war of 1812 - the Borodino fight took place.
And while memory of events of bygone days is live, also Russia will be live.
Yes, there were fights fighting,
and, speak, still what!
is remembered Not without reason by all Russia
about day of Borodino!