Rus Articles Journal

Disappearance of a civilization of the Maya: what will be farther?

Mysterious disappearance of a civilization of the Maya are a secret which still concerns many scientists of the modern world. Maya were a one of most culturally - the developed people of the American continent, the become famous writing, art and architecture. This civilization is formed during a preclassical era, but reaches the highest blossoming during the classical period (250-900 - e) .

In what uniqueness and an originality of this culture?

of the Maya is the disappeared civilization of Central America living to the North from Peru, generally in the territory of the peninsula Yucatan, Guatemala, British Honduras and some other territories. These people are known for construction of the stone cities, also they applied the developed hieroglyphic system of writing; created effective system of agriculture; had profound knowledge in astronomy that allowed to predict solar and lunar eclipses with an accuracy and to calculate a way of the movement of Venus on the orbit with a mistake in 14 seconds a year.

But the greatest fame was gained by a so-called calendar of the Maya in which future accident is predicted on December 21, 2012. Their calendar system helped them to count cycles of eclipses, to make tables of synchronization of cycle times of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter.

Besides carefully - the developed calendar and writing, Maya had the pyramidal temples and palaces put from calcareous blocks in which there were rooms with vaulted ceilings. Maya were skillful masters of creation of polikhromny ceramics and possessed sophisticated art style which was shown both in bas-reliefs, and in a wall list.

Classical period is time when not only the architecture, but also art of the Maya in general reaches the peak of development. Throughout six centuries the people of the Maya reached unprecedented heights not only in intellectual, but also in art development. By this time any of civilizations the New, Old World could not achieve such success. Legally consider a classical era as “Golden Age“ not only for the Maya people, but also for all other people of Mesoamerica. Developed economy, wide circulation of trade and high population - here distinctive features of this time.

The Maya civilization throughout the existence stayed in a condition of development, on the decline, and it is connected with conquerors whose culture made strong impact on way and a way of life of the people of the Maya. One of the periods of development blossoming of culture “ miraflores “ is considered. The architecture and ceramics of this culture considerably differ in grace and complexity of composite decisions from achievements of the Maya of the last centuries. But the termination of the stage “milaflores“ marked decline of culture in mountain area of the Maya. By the end of the protoclassical period of Kaminalguyyu which was not only the largest religious center of the Maya, but also concentration of all cultural and political life in the southern area, already almost lay in ruins.

The following not less important culture is a culture “ of Esperance “. At the beginning of the 5th century AD mountain areas of the Maya got under domination of Teotihuacan. Newcomers, as called aggressors, took control of Kaminalguyyu and on its place delivered themselves the tiny copy of the capital. The civilization of “Esperance“ can be considered some kind of hybrid since conquerors got under influence of local tastes and traditions. But all - some traces of this culture were found among ruins of Kaminalguyyu: openly several architectural complexes presented by step pyramids with application of the elements “talud-tablero“ which were not characteristic of the Maya; it is revealed that conquerors used clay at construction, but not a construction stone.

But art of the late classical period of the Maya which continued to develop in the directions designated at the beginning of a classical era is the most interesting. Artists of the Maya were free in the choice and could develop the special art style. They were not interested in dimensions of the image though they easily could give to the works depth and prospect. Their art povestvovatelno, is oversaturated by an embellishment, very picturesquely and dvukhmerno. The Maya artists excellently were able to create carved bas-reliefs, achieved considerable achievements in ceramics which passed a way from rough, sample vessels, ordinary pots and bowls to the real masterpieces of art.

the Coming accident

But by the beginning of the 10th century in the central region comes a decline of a classical civilization, and somewhere in the same time of the settlement of the Maya begin to fall into decay, many of them were left by inhabitants. There are different versions giving the possible reasons of such accident (i.e. disappearances of a civilization): crash of local system of agriculture, epidemic of dreadful diseases (for example, yellow fever), invasion of conquerors from Mexico, social cataclysms, violent capture of people in captivity tyulteksky governors of Yucatan, and even earthquakes and recession of solar activity.

Disputes about the reasons of disappearance of a civilization of the Maya are conducted still. This secret, most likely, and remains a riddle for researchers and scientists.