Rus Articles Journal

What is Sevastopol obliged to Miklukho by - Maclay?

in the Spring of 1875 the great scientist and the traveler Miklukho - Maclay wrote from Siam to the friend and the colleague Dorn: “I quite share your views about value for science of zoological stations … excellent results of the station founded by you in Naples gave me great pleasure. I do not know whether the station on the Black Sea which establishment I offered the Moscow society of naturalists was arranged“.

Actually Black Sea station mentioned by Nikolay Nikolaevich not just was arranged (and for two years earlier, than Neapolitan), but exists to this day, having turned into large scientific institution - Institute of biology of the southern seas.

Miklukho - Maclay was not afraid to dream and realize the dreams. What he dreamed still, except New Guinea of? Well, for example, about that all globe was covered with a network biological (or zoological as they were called then) stations. Such stations, by analogy to stations railway, had to become temporary havens for scientists: here they could make experiments and researches, to collect scientific material, and then to move to the following station and to travel so all over the world.

This idea of Miklukho - Maclay stated in 1869 at the II congress of the Russian scientists and doctors in Moscow. The idea was supported, and congress passed the decision on the organization of biological station on the Crimean coast - in Sevastopol. In 1871 the Sevastopol biological station began the work, having become the first similar establishment in Russia and the third in the world.

The first decades the Sevastopol biological research station rented rooms in one, in other building. It contained at the expense of public organizations and individuals and was financed extremely poorly. So, in 1891 the station was placed in three rooms and had four desktops. Only 2 - 3 persons could work in such conditions. In 1892 the station was transferred to Imperial academy of Sciences, and it allocated funds for construction of own building with a sea aquarium.

Moving of station to the new building designed by the architect Veyzen in style of the classical Renaissance and built on the bank of the Sevastopol bay took place in the fall of 1897 - go. Then began the work and an aquarium. In the guide to the city of the beginning of the 20th century it was reported: “The aquarium is arranged so effectively and gracefully that on beauty and wealth argues with the aquariums of Berlin and Naples, most known in Europe“.

The aquarium accepted visitors from 10 to 16 o`clock daily, except Saturday and Monday, and first worked for free. Since 1904 the ticket for adults began to cost 30 kopeks, for children - 15, but at the same time on Sundays and Thursdays he could be visited, without paying for an entrance. Except inhabitants of the Black Sea, in an aquarium there were several animals from the Mediterranean and Marble seas: lobsters, starfishes, actinium.

The first test fell to aquarium lot in 1911. That year at first January frosts ruined most of its inhabitants, and then in March the strong storm destroyed the embankment which is recently built about station. Stones from the embankment broke external glasses of an aquarium, and visits of public stopped up to May.

Next time work of an aquarium and station stopped in 1914, from the beginning of World War I, and was resumed only in 1920 - x. The aquarium began to accept visitors of 6 days in a week. At the same time Red Army men, krasnoflotets and school students could visit him free of charge. During World War II the building of an aquarium was partially destroyed, its inhabitants died, and at the station parts of coastal defense of Germans and the German ware warehouses were placed.

The restored aquarium was open in 1951. At the beginning of 1960 - x the Sevastopol biological station was reorganized into Institute of biology of the southern seas (INBYUM). And in 1971 before a main entrance in InBYuM the monument to Nikolay Nikolaevich Miklukho - to Maclay - the person thanks to whom there was in Sevastopol at first a biological research station, and then and Institute was established.

By the way, the Sevastopol biological research station - not the only realization of dream of Miklukho - Maclay. In 1878 it founded one more sea biological station - near Sydney in Australia.